Host-pathogen interaction of human coronaviruses - apoptosis (WP4864)

Homo sapiens

This pathway describes the induction and modulation of the apoptosis system during human coronavirus infection. The information is based on the review of Fung and Liu [10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115759]. Apoptosis is a highly controlled form of cell death that can be initiated by several internal (DNA damage) and external factors (T-cell death signal). There are some indications that induction of apoptosis in immune cells contribute to the suppression of the host immune system in some human coronavirus infections [10.1128/JVI.00269-12]. SARS-CoV induces caspase-dependent apoptosis by interfering with prosurvival BCL proteins (BCL2, BCL2L1, MCL1) and AKT1 and uses the apoptosis induced cell deconstruction it for replication, although it seems not to be depending on this mechanism for replication [10.1016/j.virusres.2014.09.016].


Friederike Ehrhart , Alex Pico , Egon Willighagen , Nhung Pham , and Eric Weitz


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Homo sapiens




Pathway Ontology

disease pathway apoptotic cell death pathway

Disease Ontology

severe acute respiratory syndrome viral infectious disease


Label Type Compact URI Comment
Cytochrome C Metabolite chebi:18070
BCL2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000171791
BID GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000015475
CASP3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000164305
CASP7 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000165806
FADD GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000168040
MAPK11 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000185386
FASLG GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000117560
BAX GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000087088
BAD GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000002330
TNF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000232810
AKT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:207
CASP9 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000132906
MAPK12 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000188130
BBC3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000105327 PUMA
BCL2L11 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000153094 BIM
tBID GeneProduct uniprot:PRO_0000223233 BH3-interacting domain death agonist, truncated, p15
APAF1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000120868
CASP8 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000064012
MCL1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000143384
BCL2L1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000171552
BAX GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000087088
MAPK13 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000156711
MAPK14 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000112062
M Protein uniprot:P59596
E Protein uniprot:P59637
7a Protein uniprot:P59635
3a Protein uniprot:P59632
S Protein uniprot:P59594
E Protein uniprot:P59637
N Protein uniprot:P59595
3b Protein uniprot:P59633
6 Protein uniprot:P59634
8a Protein uniprot:Q7TFA0
9b Protein uniprot:P59636


  1. Cleavage of BID by caspase 8 mediates the mitochondrial damage in the Fas pathway of apoptosis. Li H, Zhu H, Xu CJ, Yuan J. Cell. 1998 Aug 21;94(4):491–501. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Human Coronavirus: Host-Pathogen Interaction. Fung TS, Liu DX. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2019 Sep 8;73:529–57. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia