Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling (WP2901)

Bos taurus

Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) are the key factors stimulating gonadotropin release from the pituitary. GnRHs are decapeptides that act via G-protein coupled receptors (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors, GnRH-R). To date, several molecular forms of GnRH and GnRH-R have been identified in vertebrates. In most species, two forms of GnRH are present. one that is hypophysiotropic, stimulating gonadotropin release from the pituitary, and one that plays a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. The pituitary gonadotropins are heterodimeric glycoprotein-hormones consisting of a non-covalently linked common glycoprotein-hormone α-subunit and a specific β-subunit (FSHβ or LHβ) conferring their biological activity(2)


Zahra Roudbari , Martina Summer-Kutmon , Egon Willighagen , Jonathan Mélius , and Alex Pico


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Bos taurus



Cell Type Ontology

gonadotropin releasing neuron

Pathway Ontology

signaling pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
DAG Metabolite chebi:18035
PA,PE Metabolite chebi:16337
cAMP Metabolite chebi:17489
Ca+2 Metabolite chebi:29108
AA Metabolite chebi:15843
Ca+2 Metabolite chebi:29108
IP3 Metabolite chebi:16595
ADCY2 GeneProduct ncbigene:510708
ITPR2 GeneProduct ncbigene:281878
Grb2 GeneProduct ncbigene:535298
PLD1 GeneProduct ncbigene:522159
ADCY7 GeneProduct ncbigene:281603
MAP3K3 GeneProduct ncbigene:508943
PLA2G4E GeneProduct ncbigene:526364
Pyk2 GeneProduct ncbigene:541008
GNRH2 GeneProduct ncbigene:100848664
CALML6 GeneProduct ncbigene:617412
PLCB3 GeneProduct ncbigene:515669
MAPK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:327672
MAP2K4 GeneProduct ncbigene:526469
Gs GeneProduct ncbigene:281793
GNAQ GeneProduct ncbigene:536654
NRAS GeneProduct ncbigene:506322
ADCY1 GeneProduct ncbigene:281601
ADCY3 GeneProduct ncbigene:535603
CAMK2A GeneProduct ncbigene:530719
CALM3 GeneProduct ncbigene:520277
HB-EGF GeneProduct ncbigene:522921
PLCB1 GeneProduct ncbigene:287026
MT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:4323
CACNA1S GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000047491
MAP3K4 GeneProduct ncbigene:511779
CACNA1D GeneProduct ncbigene:408013
PLCB2 GeneProduct ncbigene:508888
LH-β GeneProduct ncbigene:786429
MAP2K2 GeneProduct ncbigene:510434
ADCY8 GeneProduct ncbigene:535017
c-JUN GeneProduct ncbigene:280831
MAP3K1 GeneProduct ncbigene:523962
ADCY9 GeneProduct ncbigene:525482
MAP2K6 GeneProduct ncbigene:286883
MAPK14 GeneProduct ncbigene:534492
MAP2K7 GeneProduct ncbigene:787278
PLA2G4B GeneProduct ncbigene:505485
MAP3K2 GeneProduct ncbigene:504592
MAPK8 GeneProduct ncbigene:539941
PRKACA GeneProduct ncbigene:282322
α-GSU GeneProduct ncbigene:280749
MAPK11 GeneProduct ncbigene:618906
CAMK2D GeneProduct ncbigene:532713
PLCB4 GeneProduct ncbigene:281985
MAPK9 GeneProduct ncbigene:537631
PLA2G4F GeneProduct ncbigene:522866
PRKX GeneProduct ncbigene:505773
SRC GeneProduct ncbigene:535742
PLA2G4A GeneProduct ncbigene:525072
SOS2 GeneProduct ncbigene:100138040
GNA11 GeneProduct ncbigene:281788
MAP2K3 GeneProduct ncbigene:516039
PLD2 GeneProduct ncbigene:514554
CALM GeneProduct ncbigene:326597
ADCY5 GeneProduct ncbigene:505740
HRAS GeneProduct ncbigene:100298939
SOS1 GeneProduct ncbigene:537682
MAPK10 GeneProduct ncbigene:534125
CALM1 GeneProduct ncbigene:617095
EGFR GeneProduct ncbigene:407217
MAPK12 GeneProduct ncbigene:512943
CDC42 GeneProduct ncbigene:532712
BMK GeneProduct ncbigene:537703
MAP2K1 GeneProduct ncbigene:533199
RAF1 GeneProduct ncbigene:521196
CAMK2B GeneProduct ncbigene:525416
ELK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:786886
CACNA1C GeneProduct ncbigene:408015
GNRH1 GeneProduct ncbigene:768325
CACNA1F GeneProduct ncbigene:509779
CALM2 GeneProduct ncbigene:100297344
CALML5 GeneProduct ncbigene:520404
KRAS GeneProduct ncbigene:541140
MAPK13 GeneProduct ncbigene:535327
ADCY4 GeneProduct ncbigene:788151
GNRHR GeneProduct ncbigene:281798
FSH-β GeneProduct ncbigene:281171
PRKACB GeneProduct ncbigene:282323
MAPK3 GeneProduct ncbigene:531391
MMP2 GeneProduct ncbigene:4313
CREB GeneProduct ncbigene:509107
PLA2G4D GeneProduct ncbigene:531209
ITPR3 GeneProduct ncbigene:281879
ADCY6 GeneProduct ncbigene:509936
CAMK2G GeneProduct ncbigene:282162
ITPR1 GeneProduct ncbigene:317697
LH-β GeneProduct ncbigene:280839


  1. Regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression. Kim HH. Semin Reprod Med. 2007 Sep;25(5):313–25. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. A systems biology approach using metabolomic data reveals genes and pathways interacting to modulate divergent growth in cattle. Widmann P, Reverter A, Fortes MRS, Weikard R, Suhre K, Hammon H, et al. BMC Genomics. 2013 Nov 18;14:798. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia