Glioblastoma signaling (WP2261)

Homo sapiens

The most frequently altered genes in glioblastoma. This pathway originally accompanied the 2008 Nature publication on the comprehensive genomic characterization of human glioblastoma genes and core pathways by TCGA, The Cancer Genome Atlas (see Bibliography). Assembled from literature and public pathway database resources, this representation can easily be kept up to date at Sources: [ cBio Cancer Genomics Portal] Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the [ CPTAC Assay Portal]


Alex Pico , Daniela Digles , Martina Summer-Kutmon , Kristina Hanspers , Egon Willighagen , Elisson nl , Friederike Ehrhart , and Eric Weitz


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Homo sapiens




Disease Ontology

brain cancer glioblastoma cancer

Pathway Ontology

p53 signaling pathway epidermal growth factor/neuregulin signaling pathway phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class I signaling pathway fibroblast growth factor signaling pathway the extracellular signal-regulated Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway glioma pathway phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class II signaling pathway Arf family mediated signaling pathway protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway

Cell Type Ontology



Label Type Compact URI Comment
LPA Metabolite chebi:52288
PI(3)P Metabolite chebi:26034
PIP3 Metabolite chebi:16618
FGFR1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000077782
PIK3C2B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000133056
SPRY2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000136158
CCND1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000110092
MAP2K1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000169032
RB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000139687
PTEN GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000171862
IGF1R GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000140443
AKT1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000142208
CCNE1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000105173
P16 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000147889
PDPK1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000140992
IRS1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000169047
FOXO1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000150907
ERRFI1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000116285
PIK3R1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000145675
TSC1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000165699
ERBB3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000065361
GRB2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000177885
PIK3C2A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000011405
PIK3C2G GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000139144
PIK3R2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000105647
PIK3CA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000121879
PIK3CB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000051382
PIK3CD GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000171608
AKT2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000105221
AKT3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000117020
SRC GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000197122
GAB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000109458
PIK3CG GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000105851
FOXO3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000118689
FOXO4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000184481
PDGFRA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000134853
PDGFRB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000113721
ERBB2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000141736
EGFR GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000146648
FGFR2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000066468
MET GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000105976
CBL GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000110395
NF1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000196712
NRAS GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000213281
KRAS GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000133703
HRAS GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000174775
ARAF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000078061
BRAF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000157764
RAF1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000132155
PLCG1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000124181
PRKCZ GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000067606
PRKCQ GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000065675
PRKCH GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000027075
PRKCG GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000126583
PRKCD GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000163932
PRKCI GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000163558
PRKCB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000166501
PRKCA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000154229
PLCG2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000197943
MAP2K2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000126934
MAP2K3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000034152
MAP2K4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000065559
MAP2K5 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000137764
MAP2K6 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000108984
MAP2K7 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000076984
MAPK1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000100030
MAPK3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000102882
CDKN1B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000111276
CDK2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000123374
CDKN1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000124762
TSC2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000103197
CDKN2C GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000123080
CDKN2B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000147883
CCND1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000110092
CCND2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000118971
CCND2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000118971
CDK4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000135446
CDK6 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000105810
E2F1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000101412
ARF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000147889
MDM2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000135679
MDM4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000198625
TP53 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000141510
EP300 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000100393
ATM GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000149311
BRCA1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000012048
BRCA2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000139618
BRCA1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000012048
MSH6 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000116062


  1. Comprehensive genomic characterization defines human glioblastoma genes and core pathways. Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. Nature. 2008 Oct 23;455(7216):1061–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Up-regulation of miR-21 by HER2/neu signaling promotes cell invasion. Huang TH, Wu F, Loeb GB, Hsu R, Heidersbach A, Brincat A, et al. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 3;284(27):18515–24. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Downregulation of miR-21 inhibits EGFR pathway and suppresses the growth of human glioblastoma cells independent of PTEN status. Zhou X, Ren Y, Moore L, Mei M, You Y, Xu P, et al. Lab Invest. 2010 Feb;90(2):144–55. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. MicroRNA-21 induces resistance to 5-fluorouracil by down-regulating human DNA MutS homolog 2 (hMSH2). Valeri N, Gasparini P, Braconi C, Paone A, Lovat F, Fabbri M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 7;107(49):21098–103. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Downregulation of Spry2 by miR-21 triggers malignancy in human gliomas. Kwak HJ, Kim YJ, Chun KR, Woo YM, Park SJ, Jeong JA, et al. Oncogene. 2011 May 26;30(21):2433–42. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. MicroRNA-499-5p promotes cellular invasion and tumor metastasis in colorectal cancer by targeting FOXO4 and PDCD4. Liu X, Zhang Z, Sun L, Chai N, Tang S, Jin J, et al. Carcinogenesis. 2011 Dec;32(12):1798–805. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia