Target of rapamycin signaling (WP1471)

Homo sapiens

TOR signaling is responsible for a cellular reaction towards nutrient and energy availability and hypoxia/stress. The mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase, is the central regulator that consists in two different complexes: a rapamycin-sensitive complex (mTORC1) consisting of mTOR, Raptor and GbetaL that regulates mRNA translation, ribosome biogenesis and autophagy and a second rapamycin-insensitive complex (mTORC2) consisting of mTOR, Rictor GbetaL, Sin1 and Protor 1/2 that regulates survival and a cytoskeletal response. TOR signaling is highly integrated in other signaling pathways that respond to external conditions, such as the insulin-signaling cascade and AMPK signaling. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the [ CPTAC Assay Portal]


Pieter Giesbertz , Alex Pico , Kristina Hanspers , Egon Willighagen , Jlw9 , Marianthi Kalafati , Martina Summer-Kutmon , and Eric Weitz


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Homo sapiens


CPTAC PancCanNet


Pathway Ontology

insulin signaling pathway mTOR signaling pathway adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
Rapamycin Metabolite pubchem.compound:5497196
PRKAB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000111725
PRKAG3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000115592
TSC2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000103197
PRKAB2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000131791
ULK1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000177169
MLST8 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000167965
RRAGC GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000116954
RAC1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000136238
DDIT4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000168209
CDC42 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000070831
RHEB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000106615
PRKAG1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000181929
MTOR GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000198793
HMGCR GeneProduct ncbigene:3156
PRR5 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000186654
RPTOR GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000141564
RRAGD GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000025039
RPS6KB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000108443
MLST8 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000167965
ULK3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000140474
RRAGB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000083750
PRKAA2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000162409
RRAGA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000155876
AKT1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000142208
FKBP1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000088832
ULK2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000083290
PRKAA1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000132356
DDIT4L GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000145358
IDI1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000067064
AKT1S1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000204673
PRR5L GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000135362
TSC1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000165699
MAPKAP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000119487
PRKCA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000154229
PRKAG2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000106617
EIF4EBP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000187840
MTOR GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000198793
RICTOR GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000164327


  1. TOR signaling in growth and metabolism. Wullschleger S, Loewith R, Hall MN. Cell. 2006 Feb 10;124(3):471–84. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Complexity of the TOR signaling network. Inoki K, Guan KL. Trends Cell Biol. 2006 Apr;16(4):206–12. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Upstream of the mammalian target of rapamycin: do all roads pass through mTOR? Corradetti MN, Guan KL. Oncogene. 2006 Oct 16;25(48):6347–60. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Expanding mTOR signaling. Yang Q, Guan KL. Cell Res. 2007 Aug;17(8):666–81. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Rag proteins regulate amino-acid-induced mTORC1 signalling. Sancak Y, Sabatini DM. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Feb;37(Pt 1):289–90. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. mTORC1 controls PNS myelination along the mTORC1-RXRγ-SREBP-lipid biosynthesis axis in Schwann cells. Norrmén C, Figlia G, Lebrun-Julien F, Pereira JA, Trötzmüller M, Köfeler HC, et al. Cell Rep. 2014 Oct 23;9(2):646–60. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia