Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling (WP2901)

Bos taurus

Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) are the key factors stimulating gonadotropin release from the pituitary. GnRHs are decapeptides that act via G-protein coupled receptors (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors, GnRH-R). To date, several molecular forms of GnRH and GnRH-R have been identified in vertebrates. In most species, two forms of GnRH are present. one that is hypophysiotropic, stimulating gonadotropin release from the pituitary, and one that plays a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. The pituitary gonadotropins are heterodimeric glycoprotein-hormones consisting of a non-covalently linked common glycoprotein-hormone α-subunit and a specific β-subunit (FSHβ or LHβ) conferring their biological activity(2)
last edited


Zahra Roudbari , Martina Summer-Kutmon , Egon Willighagen , Jonathan Mlius , and Alex Pico

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Bos taurus



Cell Type Ontology: gonadotropin releasing neuron

Pathway Ontology: signaling pathway


Label Type Compact Identifier Comment
DAG Metabolite chebi:18035
PA,PE Metabolite chebi:16337
cAMP Metabolite chebi:17489
Ca+2 Metabolite chebi:29108
AA Metabolite chebi:15843
Ca+2 Metabolite chebi:29108
IP3 Metabolite chebi:16595
ADCY2 GeneProduct ncbigene:510708
ITPR2 GeneProduct ncbigene:281878
Grb2 GeneProduct ncbigene:535298
PLD1 GeneProduct ncbigene:522159
ADCY7 GeneProduct ncbigene:281603
MAP3K3 GeneProduct ncbigene:508943
PLA2G4E GeneProduct ncbigene:526364
Pyk2 GeneProduct ncbigene:541008
GNRH2 GeneProduct ncbigene:100848664
CALML6 GeneProduct ncbigene:617412
PLCB3 GeneProduct ncbigene:515669
MAPK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:327672
MAP2K4 GeneProduct ncbigene:526469
Gs GeneProduct ncbigene:281793
GNAQ GeneProduct ncbigene:536654
NRAS GeneProduct ncbigene:506322
ADCY1 GeneProduct ncbigene:281601
ADCY3 GeneProduct ncbigene:535603
CAMK2A GeneProduct ncbigene:530719
CALM3 GeneProduct ncbigene:520277
HB-EGF GeneProduct ncbigene:522921
PLCB1 GeneProduct ncbigene:287026
MT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:4323
CACNA1S GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000047491
MAP3K4 GeneProduct ncbigene:511779
CACNA1D GeneProduct ncbigene:408013
PLCB2 GeneProduct ncbigene:508888
LH-β GeneProduct ncbigene:786429
MAP2K2 GeneProduct ncbigene:510434
ADCY8 GeneProduct ncbigene:535017
c-JUN GeneProduct ncbigene:280831
MAP3K1 GeneProduct ncbigene:523962
ADCY9 GeneProduct ncbigene:525482
MAP2K6 GeneProduct ncbigene:286883
MAPK14 GeneProduct ncbigene:534492
MAP2K7 GeneProduct ncbigene:787278
PLA2G4B GeneProduct ncbigene:505485
MAP3K2 GeneProduct ncbigene:504592
MAPK8 GeneProduct ncbigene:539941
PRKACA GeneProduct ncbigene:282322
α-GSU GeneProduct ncbigene:280749
MAPK11 GeneProduct ncbigene:618906
CAMK2D GeneProduct ncbigene:532713
PLCB4 GeneProduct ncbigene:281985
MAPK9 GeneProduct ncbigene:537631
PLA2G4F GeneProduct ncbigene:522866
PRKX GeneProduct ncbigene:505773
SRC GeneProduct ncbigene:535742
PLA2G4A GeneProduct ncbigene:525072
SOS2 GeneProduct ncbigene:100138040
GNA11 GeneProduct ncbigene:281788
MAP2K3 GeneProduct ncbigene:516039
PLD2 GeneProduct ncbigene:514554
CALM GeneProduct ncbigene:326597
ADCY5 GeneProduct ncbigene:505740
HRAS GeneProduct ncbigene:100298939
SOS1 GeneProduct ncbigene:537682
MAPK10 GeneProduct ncbigene:534125
CALM1 GeneProduct ncbigene:617095
EGFR GeneProduct ncbigene:407217
MAPK12 GeneProduct ncbigene:512943
CDC42 GeneProduct ncbigene:532712
BMK GeneProduct ncbigene:537703
MAP2K1 GeneProduct ncbigene:533199
RAF1 GeneProduct ncbigene:521196
CAMK2B GeneProduct ncbigene:525416
ELK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:786886
CACNA1C GeneProduct ncbigene:408015
GNRH1 GeneProduct ncbigene:768325
CACNA1F GeneProduct ncbigene:509779
CALM2 GeneProduct ncbigene:100297344
CALML5 GeneProduct ncbigene:520404
KRAS GeneProduct ncbigene:541140
MAPK13 GeneProduct ncbigene:535327
ADCY4 GeneProduct ncbigene:788151
GNRHR GeneProduct ncbigene:281798
FSH-β GeneProduct ncbigene:281171
PRKACB GeneProduct ncbigene:282323
MAPK3 GeneProduct ncbigene:531391
MMP2 GeneProduct ncbigene:4313
CREB GeneProduct ncbigene:509107
PLA2G4D GeneProduct ncbigene:531209
ITPR3 GeneProduct ncbigene:281879
ADCY6 GeneProduct ncbigene:509936
CAMK2G GeneProduct ncbigene:282162
ITPR1 GeneProduct ncbigene:317697
LH-β GeneProduct ncbigene:280839


  1. Kim HH. Regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression. Semin Reprod Med. 2007 Sep;25(5):313–25. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Widmann P, Reverter A, Fortes MRS, Weikard R, Suhre K, Hammon H, et al. A systems biology approach using metabolomic data reveals genes and pathways interacting to modulate divergent growth in cattle. BMC Genomics. 2013 Nov 18;14:798. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia