Prostaglandin synthesis and regulation (WP98)

Homo sapiens

A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are mediators and have a variety of strong physiological effects, such as regulating the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue.[1] Prostaglandins are not hormones, but autocrine or paracrine, which are locally acting messenger molecules. They differ from hormones in that they are not produced at a discrete site but in many places throughout the human body. Also, their target cells are present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion (of which there are many). The prostaglandins, together with the thromboxanes and prostacyclins, form the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives, a subclass of eicosanoids. Adapted from [ Gross, G et al. 2000, Society for Gynecologic Investigation; 7:88-95]. Description adapted from [ Wikipedia]. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the [ CPTAC Assay Portal]


Nathan Salomonis , Kristina Hanspers , Alex Pico , Martina Summer-Kutmon , Egon Willighagen , Marianthi Kalafati , Vinny Lynch , Denise Slenter , and Eric Weitz


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Homo sapiens



Pathway Ontology

prostaglandin metabolic pathway classic metabolic pathway prostaglandin biosynthetic pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
Cortisone Metabolite chebi:16962
PGF2a Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001139
Calcium Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000464
PGF2a Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001139
Arachidonic Acid Metabolite cas:506-32-1
Cortisol Metabolite wikidata:Q190875
PGE2 Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0003175
PGI2 Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001335
Calcium Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000464
Cell MembranePhospholipids Metabolite chebi:16247
TXA2 Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001452
Cortisol Metabolite wikidata:Q190875
Prostaglandin H2 Metabolite cas:745-65-3
Progesterone Metabolite cas:57-83-0
PGD2 Metabolite kegg.compound:C00696
20-dihydroprogesterone Metabolite chebi:36728
PGI2 Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001335
PGE2 Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0003175
PGD2 Metabolite kegg.compound:C00696
TXA2 Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001452
CYP11A1 GeneProduct ncbigene:1583
ANXA5 GeneProduct ncbigene:308
EDNRB GeneProduct ncbigene:1910
PTGER4 GeneProduct ncbigene:5734
S100A10 GeneProduct ncbigene:6281 PMID: 12962548 relationship with Annexin 2
S100A6 GeneProduct ncbigene:6277
PTGFR GeneProduct ncbigene:5737
PTGIS GeneProduct ncbigene:5740
PTGER2 GeneProduct ncbigene:5732
PTGER1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5731
HPGD GeneProduct ncbigene:3248
PTGS2 GeneProduct ncbigene:5743
PRL GeneProduct ncbigene:5617
ANXA8 GeneProduct ncbigene:244
PLA2G4A GeneProduct ncbigene:5321
ANXA4 GeneProduct ncbigene:307
SCGB1A1 GeneProduct ncbigene:7356 PMID: 7615804, PMID: 3292559
PTGDS GeneProduct ncbigene:5730
EDN1 GeneProduct ncbigene:1906 PMID: 1474344
ANXA3 GeneProduct ncbigene:306
HSD11B1 GeneProduct ncbigene:3290
ANXA1 GeneProduct ncbigene:301
PTGDR GeneProduct ncbigene:5729
PTGIR GeneProduct ncbigene:5739
HSD11B2 GeneProduct ncbigene:3291
PTGS1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5742
ANXA6 GeneProduct ncbigene:309
EDNRA GeneProduct ncbigene:1909
TBXAS1 GeneProduct ncbigene:6916
PTGER3 GeneProduct ncbigene:5733
ANXA2 GeneProduct ncbigene:302
ABCC4 GeneProduct ncbigene:10257
HPGDS GeneProduct ncbigene:27306
MITF GeneProduct ncbigene:4286
PTGES GeneProduct ncbigene:9536
PPARG GeneProduct ncbigene:5468
PPARGC1A GeneProduct ncbigene:10891
PPARGC1B GeneProduct ncbigene:133522
SOX9 GeneProduct ncbigene:6662
AKR1B GeneProduct uniprot:P15121
AKR1C3 GeneProduct ncbigene:8644
CBR1 GeneProduct ncbigene:873
AKR1C1 GeneProduct ncbigene:1645
AKR1C2 GeneProduct ncbigene:1646
AKR1C1 GeneProduct ncbigene:1645
TBXA2R GeneProduct ncbigene:6915
PTGFRN GeneProduct ncbigene:5738


  1. Identification of a principal mRNA species for human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoform (AKR1C3) that exhibits high prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity. Matsuura K, Shiraishi H, Hara A, Sato K, Deyashiki Y, Ninomiya M, et al. J Biochem. 1998 Nov;124(5):940–6. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Gene knockout mice in the study of parturition. Gross G, Imamura T, Muglia LJ. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2000;7(2):88–95. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. FPRP, a major, highly stoichiometric, highly specific CD81- and CD9-associated protein. Stipp CS, Orlicky D, Hemler ME. J Biol Chem. 2001 Feb 16;276(7):4853–62. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Mammalian class Sigma glutathione S-transferases: catalytic properties and tissue-specific expression of human and rat GSH-dependent prostaglandin D2 synthases. Jowsey IR, Thomson AM, Flanagan JU, Murdock PR, Moore GB, Meyer DJ, et al. Biochem J. 2001 Nov 1;359(Pt 3):507–16. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. MITF is necessary for generation of prostaglandin D2 in mouse mast cells. Morii E, Oboki K. J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 19;279(47):48923–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. SOX9 regulates prostaglandin D synthase gene transcription in vivo to ensure testis development. Wilhelm D, Hiramatsu R, Mizusaki H, Widjaja L, Combes AN, Kanai Y, et al. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 6;282(14):10553–60. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 mediated prostaglandin D2 metabolism augments the PI3K/Akt proliferative signaling pathway in human prostate cancer cells. Wang S, Yang Q, Fung KM, Lin HK. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008 Jul 16;289(1–2):60–6. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. The human aldose reductase AKR1B1 qualifies as the primary prostaglandin F synthase in the endometrium. Bresson E, Boucher-Kovalik S, Chapdelaine P, Madore E, Harvey N, Laberge PY, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):210–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1) gene in porcine ovary and uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Seo KS, Naidansuren P, Kim SH, Yun SJ, Park JJ, Sim BW, et al. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011 Oct 20;9:139. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. In vitro effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands on prostaglandin E2 synthesis and secretion by porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Bogacka I, Bogacki M, Gaglewska M, Kurzynska A, Wasielak M. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 Feb;64(1):47–54. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia