Toll-like receptor signaling (WP88)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed in sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes. Once these microbes have breached physical barriers such as the skin or intestinal tract mucosa, they are recognized by TLRs, which activate immune cell responses. The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13. TLR signaling is divided into two distinct signaling pathways, the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathway. The MyD88-dependent response occurs on dimerization of the TLR receptor, and is utilized by every TLR except TLR3. Its primary effect is activation of NFκB and Mitogen-activated protein kinase. Ligand binding and conformational change that occurs in the receptor recruits the adaptor protein MyD88, a member of the TIR family. MyD88 then recruits IRAK4, IRAK1 and IRAK2. IRAK kinases then phosphorylate and activate the protein TRAF6, which in turn polyubiquinates the protein TAK1, as well as itself in order to facilitate binding to IKK-β. On binding, TAK1 phosphorylates IKK-β, which then phosphorylates IκB causing its degradation and allowing NFκB to diffuse into the cell nucleus and activate transcription and consequent induction of inflammatory cytokines. Both TLR3 and TLR4 utilize the TRIF-dependent pathway, which is triggered by dsRNA and LPS, respectively. For TLR3, dsRNA leads to activation of the receptor, recruiting the adaptor TRIF. TRIF activates the kinases TBK1 and RIPK1, which creates a branch in the signaling pathway. The TRIF/TBK1 signaling complex phosphorylates IRF3 allowing its translocation into the nucleus and production of Interferon type I. Meanwhile, activation of RIPK1 causes the polyubiquitination and activation of TAK1 and NFκB transcription in the same manner as the MyD88-dependent pathway. Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toll-like_receptor#Signaling)
AuthorsPieter Goossens , Thomas Kelder , Alex Pico , Daniela Digles , Kristina Hanspers , and Eric Weitz
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- Bioenergetic defects in muscle fibers of RYR1 mutant knock-in mice associated with malignant hyperthermia (2020).
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Pathway OntologyToll-like receptor signaling pathway