Monoamine transport (WP727)

Homo sapiens

Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the [ CPTAC Assay Portal]


Bzhang , Dex Duncan , Kristina Hanspers , Alex Pico , Daniela Digles , Zahra Roudbari , Marianthi Kalafati , Martina Summer-Kutmon , Denise Slenter , Egon Willighagen , and Eric Weitz


last edited

Discuss this pathway

Check for ongoing discussions or start your own.

Cited In

Are you planning to include this pathway in your next publication? See How to Cite and add a link here to your paper once it's online.


Homo sapiens



Pathway Ontology

monoamine transport pathway regulatory pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
HEPES Metabolite cas:7365-45-9
reserpine Metabolite cas:50-55-5
noradrenaline Metabolite cas:51-41-2
anisomycin Metabolite chebi:338412
SB 203580 Metabolite cas:152121-47-6
dopamine Metabolite cas:51-61-6
epinephrine Metabolite cas:51-43-4
4-Aminobutanoic acid Metabolite cas:56-12-2
catecholamines Metabolite chebi:33567
serotonin Metabolite cas:50-67-9
Hemicholinium-3 Metabolite cas:312-45-8
Phorbol ester Metabolite cas:16561-29-8
citalopram Metabolite cas:59729-33-8
L-tryptophan Metabolite cas:73-22-3
TSC2 GeneProduct ncbigene:7249 tuberous sclerosis 2
SCAMP2 GeneProduct ncbigene:10066 secretory carrier membrane protein 2
RBL2 GeneProduct ncbigene:5934 retinoblastoma-like 2 (p130)
AMPH GeneProduct ncbigene:273 amphiphysin
STX1A GeneProduct ncbigene:6804 syntaxin 1A (brain)
SYN1 GeneProduct ncbigene:6853 synapsin I
PVRL2 GeneProduct ncbigene:5819 poliovirus receptor-related 2 (herpesvirus entry mediator B)
TNF GeneProduct ncbigene:7124 tumor necrosis factor
SLC5A7 GeneProduct ncbigene:60482 solute carrier family 5 (choline transporter), member 7
FBXO32 GeneProduct ncbigene:114907 F-box protein 32
SLC6A2 GeneProduct ncbigene:6530 solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, noradrenalin), member 2
ITGB3 GeneProduct ncbigene:3690 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)
CDC25C GeneProduct ncbigene:995 cell division cycle 25 homolog C (S. pombe)
NOS1 GeneProduct ncbigene:4842 nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal)
ACHE GeneProduct ncbigene:43 acetylcholinesterase (Yt blood group)
DBH GeneProduct ncbigene:1621 dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase)
TDO2 GeneProduct ncbigene:6999 tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase
TNFRSF11B GeneProduct ncbigene:4982 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 11b (osteoprotegerin)
AGT GeneProduct ncbigene:183 angiotensinogen (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 8)
SLC6A3 GeneProduct ncbigene:6531 solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, dopamine), member 3
TPH2 GeneProduct ncbigene:121278 tryptophan hydroxylase 2
HRH3 GeneProduct ncbigene:11255 histamine receptor H3
MAPK14 GeneProduct ncbigene:1432 mitogen activated protein kinase 14
TGFB1I1 GeneProduct ncbigene:7041 transforming growth factor beta 1 induced transcript 1
SLC6A1 GeneProduct ncbigene:6529 solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, GABA), member 1
IL1R1 GeneProduct ncbigene:3554 interleukin 1 receptor, type I
UNC13B GeneProduct ncbigene:10497 unc-13 homolog B (C. elegans)
ADORA2A GeneProduct ncbigene:135 adenosine A2a receptor
TH GeneProduct ncbigene:7054 tyrosine hydroxylase
PPP2CB GeneProduct ncbigene:5516 protein phosphatase 2 (formerly 2A), catalytic subunit, beta isoform
IL1B GeneProduct ncbigene:3553 interleukin 1 beta
SLC6A4 GeneProduct ncbigene:6532 solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin), member 4


  1. Monoamine transporter gene structure and polymorphisms in relation to psychiatric and other complex disorders. Hahn MK, Blakely RD. Pharmacogenomics J. 2002;2(4):217–35. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Developing novel treatments for mood disorders: accelerating discovery. Tamminga CA, Nemeroff CB, Blakely RD, Brady L, Carter CS, Davis KL, et al. Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Sep 15;52(6):589–609. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. A regulated interaction of syntaxin 1A with the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter establishes catecholamine clearance capacity. Sung U, Apparsundaram S, Galli A, Kahlig KM, Savchenko V, Schroeter S, et al. J Neurosci. 2003 Mar 1;23(5):1697–709. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. A mutation in the human norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) associated with orthostatic intolerance disrupts surface expression of mutant and wild-type transporters. Hahn MK, Robertson D, Blakely RD. J Neurosci. 2003 Jun 1;23(11):4470–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Ultrastructural localization of the norepinephrine transporter in superficial and deep layers of the rat prelimbic prefrontal cortex and its spatial relationship to probable dopamine terminals. Miner LH, Schroeter S, Blakely RD, Sesack SR. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Nov 24;466(4):478–94. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Altered striatal function and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in acetylcholinesterase knockout mice. Volpicelli-Daley LA, Hrabovska A, Duysen EG, Ferguson SM, Blakely RD, Lockridge O, et al. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;64(6):1309–16. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Cell surface trafficking of the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter revealed with an ectodomain antibody. Savchenko V, Sung U, Blakely RD. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003 Dec;24(4):1131–50. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Ultrastructural interactions between terminals expressing the norepinephrine transporter and dopamine neurons in the rat and monkey ventral tegmental area. Liprando LA, Miner LH, Blakely RD, Lewis DA, Sesack SR. Synapse. 2004 Jun 15;52(4):233–44. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Adenosine receptor, protein kinase G, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent up-regulation of serotonin transporters involves both transporter trafficking and activation. Zhu CB, Hewlett WA, Feoktistov I, Biaggioni I, Blakely RD. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Jun;65(6):1462–74. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. p38 MAPK activation elevates serotonin transport activity via a trafficking-independent, protein phosphatase 2A-dependent process. Zhu CB, Carneiro AM, Dostmann WR, Hewlett WA, Blakely RD. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 22;280(16):15649–58. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. Evidence for biphasic effects of protein kinase C on serotonin transporter function, endocytosis, and phosphorylation. Jayanthi LD, Samuvel DJ, Blakely RD, Ramamoorthy S. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;67(6):2077–87. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  12. Proteomic analysis of human norepinephrine transporter complexes reveals associations with protein phosphatase 2A anchoring subunit and 14-3-3 proteins. Sung U, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Blakely RD. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Aug 5;333(3):671–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  13. Human serotonin transporter variants display altered sensitivity to protein kinase G and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Prasad HC, Zhu CB, McCauley JL, Samuvel DJ, Ramamoorthy S, Shelton RC, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 9;102(32):11545–50. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  14. Chronic stress increases the plasmalemmal distribution of the norepinephrine transporter and the coexpression of tyrosine hydroxylase in norepinephrine axons in the prefrontal cortex. Miner LH, Jedema HP, Moore FW, Blakely RD, Grace AA, Sesack SR. J Neurosci. 2006 Feb 1;26(5):1571–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  15. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activate serotonin transporters. Zhu CB, Blakely RD, Hewlett WA. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Oct;31(10):2121–31. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  16. Serotonin-, protein kinase C-, and Hic-5-associated redistribution of the platelet serotonin transporter. Carneiro AMD, Blakely RD. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 25;281(34):24769–80. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  17. Na+, Cl-, and pH dependence of the human choline transporter (hCHT) in Xenopus oocytes: the proton inactivation hypothesis of hCHT in synaptic vesicles. Iwamoto H, Blakely RD, De Felice LJ. J Neurosci. 2006 Sep 27;26(39):9851–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  18. Amphetamine induces a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent reduction in norepinephrine transporter surface expression linked to changes in syntaxin 1A/transporter complexes. Dipace C, Sung U, Binda F, Blakely RD, Galli A. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;71(1):230–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  19. The functional impact of SLC6 transporter genetic variation. Hahn MK, Blakely RD. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:401–41. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  20. Calcium-dependent interactions of the human norepinephrine transporter with syntaxin 1A. Sung U, Blakely RD. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007 Feb;34(2):251–60. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  21. Hypoinsulinemia regulates amphetamine-induced reverse transport of dopamine. Williams JM, Owens WA, Turner GH, Saunders C, Dipace C, Blakely RD, et al. PLoS Biol. 2007 Oct 16;5(10):e274. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  22. Interactions between integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and the serotonin transporter regulate serotonin transport and platelet aggregation in mice and humans. Carneiro AMD, Cook EH, Murphy DL, Blakely RD. J Clin Invest. 2008 Apr;118(4):1544–52. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  23. Going with the flow: trafficking-dependent and -independent regulation of serotonin transport. Steiner JA, Carneiro AMD, Blakely RD. Traffic. 2008 Sep;9(9):1393–402. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  24. Anomalous dopamine release associated with a human dopamine transporter coding variant. Mazei-Robison MS, Bowton E, Holy M, Schmudermaier M, Freissmuth M, Sitte HH, et al. J Neurosci. 2008 Jul 9;28(28):7040–6. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  25. Cholinergic neurons of mouse intrinsic cardiac ganglia contain noradrenergic enzymes, norepinephrine transporters, and the neurotrophin receptors tropomyosin-related kinase A and p75. Hoard JL, Hoover DB, Mabe AM, Blakely RD, Feng N, Paolocci N. Neuroscience. 2008 Sep 22;156(1):129–42. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  26. Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes. Carneiro AMD, Airey DC, Thompson B, Zhu CB, Lu L, Chesler EJ, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 10;106(6):2047–52. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia