Long-day flowering time pathway (WP622)

Arabidopsis thaliana

Flowering time in a plant is associated often with the property of when the plant flowers. However, this property is dependent on several components of the environment (light, photoperiod and temperature), gene regulation, and several biological processes besides the genetic makeup of the plant. The time taken by the plant to flower also depends on when the vegetative shoot apical meristem transitions into the reproductive shoot apical meristem. The correct timing and perception of the signal are essential to successful flower development in a timely manner. In Arabidopsis, the day length (photoperiod) can control several plant processes including the flowering time. Arabidopsis is a facultative long-day plant since its flowering is promoted by the long days (~16 hours light; 8 hours dark), and delayed, in short-day conditions (8 hours light, 16 hours dark). As compared to rice which is a short-day plant. Flowering in rice is induced by a short day length photoperiod.


Pankaj Jaiswal , Thomas Kelder , Alex Pico , Kristina Hanspers , Seth J. Davis , Jonathan Mélius , Eric Weitz , Martina Summer-Kutmon , and Egon Willighagen


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Arabidopsis thaliana



Pathway Ontology

regulatory pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
Gibberellic Acid Metabolite cas:77-06-5
PHYA GeneProduct :AT1G09570-TAIR-G
CRY2 GeneProduct :AT1G04400-TAIR-G
SOC1 GeneProduct :AT2G45660-TAIR-G
CRY1 GeneProduct :AT4G08920-TAIR-G
PHYB GeneProduct :AT2G18790-TAIR-G
PHYD GeneProduct :AT4G16250-TAIR-G
CO GeneProduct :AT5G15840-TAIR-G
PHYE GeneProduct :AT4G18130-TAIR-G
FT GeneProduct :AT1G65480-TAIR-G
GI GeneProduct :AT1G22770-TAIR-G promotes flowering by acting upstream of CO (CONSTANS), FT (FLOWERING TIME) and SOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1)
ELF3 GeneProduct :AT2G25930-TAIR-G EARLY FLOWERING 3 interacts with PHYB
FKF1 GeneProduct :AT1G68050-TAIR-G FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX 1 is clock-controlled and regulates transition to flowering.
CCA1 GeneProduct :AT2G46830-TAIR-G CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 is a transcriptional repressor and works similar to LHY in a regulatory feedback loop.
PIF6 GeneProduct :AT3G62090-TAIR-G PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 6 is a Myc-related bHLH transcription factor and physically interacts with TOC1.
TOC-1 GeneProduct :AT5G61380-TAIR-G TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 is involved in generating circadian rythm and shortens the span of circumnutation rate. TOC1 interacts with ZTL.
LHY GeneProduct :AT1G01060-TAIR-G LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 1 is a transcription factor involved in circadian rythm along with MYB transcription factor.
ELF4 GeneProduct :AT2G40080-TAIR-G EARLY FLOWERING 4 controls circadian rhythms and flowering time
CK2 alpha A GeneProduct :AT5G67380-TAIR-G
CK2 alpha B GeneProduct :AT3G50000-TAIR-G
CK2B1 GeneProduct :AT5G47080-TAIR-G
CK2 alpha C GeneProduct :AT2G23080-TAIR-G
CK2B4 GeneProduct :AT2G44680-TAIR-G
CK2B2 GeneProduct :AT4G17640-TAIR-G
CK2B3 GeneProduct :AT3G60250-TAIR-G
CK2 alpha Cp GeneProduct :AT2G23070-TAIR-G Found localized to plastid/chloroplast
COP1 GeneProduct :AT2G32950-TAIR-G
FLC GeneProduct :AT5G10140-TAIR-G FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a transcription factor that functions as a repressor of floral transition and contributes to temperature compensation of the circadian clock. Its expression is downregulated during cold treatment.
FRI GeneProduct :AT4G00650-TAIR-G Loss of function of FRIGIDA (FRI) results in early flowering.
FCA GeneProduct :AT4G16280-TAIR-G It is an RNA-binding protein that promotes transition of vegetative meristem to reproductive mesitem and is involved in RNA-mediated chromatin silencing.
SPY GeneProduct :AT3G11540-TAIR-G SPINDLY (SPY) encodes for the enzyme N-acetyl glucosamine transferase that may glycosylate molecules involved in GA signaling. SPY acts as both a repressor of GA responses and as a positive regulation of cytokinin signalling. [imported from TAIR http://arabidopsis.org/servlets/TairObject?id=36698&type=locus]
LD GeneProduct :AT4G02560-TAIR-G LUMINIDEPENDENS (LD) is a positive regulator of flowering in the autonomous pathway. Its functional disruption results in delayed flowering.


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  3. COP1 and ELF3 control circadian function and photoperiodic flowering by regulating GI stability. Yu JW, Rubio V, Lee NY, Bai S, Lee SY, Kim SS, et al. Mol Cell. 2008 Dec 5;32(5):617–30. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
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