ID signaling (WP53)

Homo sapiens

The Inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) proteins belong to the class V HLH family of transcription factors. Four ID proteins (ID 1-4)are known in humans. Unlike the basic HLH (bHLH) transcription factors, ID proteins lack the basic DNA binding region. They can heterodimerize with class I bHLH transcription factors to form inactive complexes. They thus act as dominant negative inhibitors of the class I bHLH transcription factors. They are also capable of regulating the activity of class II HLH transcription factors. Since, class I and II HLH proteins regulate the expression of cell type-specific genes and differentiated phenotype, ID proteins are thought to regulate the cross-talk between the pathways involved in cell growth and differentiation. Aberrant expression of ID proteins are found in many primary tumors and are found to regulate many steps in cancer progression including neo-angiogenesis, invasion and migration, proliferation and growth, cell-cell interaction and differentiation. These include head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, hepatocellular carcinonoma, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer. Among the transcription factors that ID proteins associate with are the Ets family members (ELKs) and paired box family (PAXs). They can also bind to the retinoblastoma and retinoblastoma-like proteins (RBLs), which are thought to be tumor suppressors. IDs can also be phosphorylated by CDK2. Please access this pathway at [ NetSlim] database. If you use this pathway, please cite following paper: Kandasamy, K., Mohan, S. S., Raju, R., Keerthikumar, S., Kumar, G. S. S., Venugopal, A. K., Telikicherla, D., Navarro, J. D., Mathivanan, S., Pecquet, C., Gollapudi, S. K., Tattikota, S. G., Mohan, S., Padhukasahasram, H., Subbannayya, Y., Goel, R., Jacob, H. K. C., Zhong, J., Sekhar, R., Nanjappa, V., Balakrishnan, L., Subbaiah, R., Ramachandra, Y. L., Rahiman, B. A., Prasad, T. S. K., Lin, J., Houtman, J. C. D., Desiderio, S., Renauld, J., Constantinescu, S. N., Ohara, O., Hirano, T., Kubo, M., Singh, S., Khatri, P., Draghici, S., Bader, G. D., Sander, C., Leonard, W. J. and Pandey, A. (2010). NetPath: A public resource of curated signal transduction pathways. Genome Biology. 11:R3.


Akhilesh Pandey , Kristina Hanspers , Martina Summer-Kutmon , Martijn Van Iersel , NetPath , Christine Chichester , Lauren J. Dupuis , Egon Willighagen , and Eric Weitz


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Homo sapiens



Pathway Ontology

signaling pathway Inhibitor of DNA binding signaling pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
RBL1 Protein ncbigene:5933
RB1 Protein ncbigene:5925
ELK3 Protein ncbigene:2004
PAX5 Protein ncbigene:5079
MYOD1 Protein ncbigene:4654
PAX8 Protein ncbigene:7849
ELK1 Protein ncbigene:2002
RBL2 Protein ncbigene:5934
ID3 Protein ncbigene:3399
ELK4 Protein ncbigene:2005
CCNE1 Protein ncbigene:898
PAX2 Protein ncbigene:5076
CDK2 Protein ncbigene:1017
SREBF1 Protein ncbigene:6720
ID2 Protein ncbigene:3398
ID1 Protein ncbigene:3397


  1. NetPath: a public resource of curated signal transduction pathways. Kandasamy K, Mohan SS, Raju R, Keerthikumar S, Kumar GSS, Venugopal AK, et al. Genome Biol. 2010 Jan 12;11(1):R3. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia