GDNF signaling (WP5143)

Homo sapiens

This pathway shows molecules involved in ligand-receptor interactions and GDNF (Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) receptor activated downstream molecular events including molecular association, enzyme catalysis, translocation, and gene regulation. Information about post-translational modification sites and residues is also depicted.


Dr. T. S. Keshava Prasad , Eric Weitz , and Egon Willighagen


last edited

Discuss this pathway

Check for ongoing discussions or start your own.

Cited In

Are you planning to include this pathway in your next publication? See How to Cite and add a link here to your paper once it's online.


Homo sapiens



Pathway Ontology

signaling pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
Sphingosine Metabolite pubchem.compound:5280335
Ca2+ Metabolite pubchem.compound:271
Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Metabolite pubchem.compound:5283560
PIP2 Metabolite pubchem.compound:24742074
IP3 Metabolite pubchem.compound:439456
DAG Metabolite pubchem.substance:365
Ca2+ Metabolite pubchem.compound:271
Ca2+ Metabolite pubchem.compound:271
Ca2+ Metabolite pubchem.compound:271
Ca2+ Metabolite pubchem.compound:271
PIP3 Metabolite pubchem.compound:101362114
PIP2 Metabolite pubchem.compound:24742074
Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Metabolite pubchem.compound:5283560
Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside Metabolite pubchem.compound:5497107
SMAD3 Protein refseq:NP_005893.1
MAP2K2 Protein refseq:NP_109587.1
FOXO3 Protein refseq:NP_001446.1
MAPK3 Protein refseq:NP_002737.2
RET Protein refseq:NP_066124.1
GAB1 Protein refseq:NP_997006.1
PDLIM7 Protein refseq:NP_005442.2
EZR Protein refseq:NP_003370.2
PCDHGB7 Protein refseq:NP_061750.1
RET Protein refseq:NP_066124.1
PXN Protein refseq:NP_001074324.1
CEBPB Protein refseq:NP_005185.2
PTK2 Protein refseq:NP_001339623.1
CRK Protein refseq:NP_058431.2
PLCG1 Protein refseq:NP_002651.2
GAB2 Protein refseq:NP_536739.1
SHC1 Protein refseq:NP_001123512.1
GRB2 Protein refseq:NP_002077.1
MAPK7 Protein refseq:NP_620602.2
GFRA2 Protein refseq:NP_001486.4
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
GFRA1 Protein refseq:NP_005255.1
GFRA1 Protein refseq:NP_005255.1
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
GFRA1 Protein refseq:NP_005255.1
RET Protein refseq:NP_066124.1
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
NCAM1 Protein refseq:NP_001229536.1
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
GFRA3 Protein refseq:NP_001487.2
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
EfnA Protein refseq:NP_066124.1
EphA Protein refseq:NP_066124.1
MAP3K14 Protein refseq:NP_003945.2
NFKBIA Protein refseq:NP_065390.1
NFKB2 Protein refseq:NP_001070962.1
RELA Protein refseq:NP_068810.3
BCL2 Protein refseq:NP_000624.2
BCL2L2 Protein refseq:NP_001186768.2
PTPN11 Protein refseq:NP_001317366.1
PRKACA Protein refseq:NP_001291278.1
SRC Protein refseq:NP_005408.1
MAPK9 Protein refseq:NP_002743.3
MAPK1 Protein refseq:NP_002736.3
AKT1 Protein refseq:NP_005154.2
MAPK3 Protein refseq:NP_002737.2
MAPK8 Protein refseq:NP_620637.1
PIK3R1 Protein refseq:NP_852664.1
DOK1 Protein refseq:NP_001372.1
BCAR1 Protein refseq:NP_001164185.1
RASA1 Protein refseq:NP_002881.1
GRB7 Protein refseq:NP_001229371.2
GRB10 Protein refseq:NP_001357938.1
NRAS Protein refseq:NP_002515.1
FOXO1 Protein refseq:NP_002006.2
RAF1 Protein refseq:NP_001341618.1
ATF1 Protein refseq:NP_005162.1
CREB1 Protein refseq:NP_604391.1
FRS2 Protein refseq:NP_001265280.1
MAPK14 Protein refseq:NP_001306.1
NCK1 Protein refseq:NP_006144.1
MAP3K3 Protein refseq:NP_976226.1
ROCK1 Protein refseq:NP_005397.1
RHOA Protein refseq:NP_001655.1
MAP2K5 Protein refseq:NP_660143.1
MEF2C Protein refseq:NP_002388.2
MAP2K1 Protein refseq:NP_002746.1
MAPK1 Protein refseq:NP_002736.3
ELK1 Protein refseq:NP_001107595.1
KCND2 Protein refseq:NP_036413.1
MET Protein refseq:NP_001120972.1
FYN Protein refseq:NP_002028.1
DOK6 Protein refseq:NP_689934.2
IKBKB Protein refseq:NP_001547.1
CHUK Protein refseq:NP_001269.3
RAC1 Protein refseq:NP_061485.1
FOXO1 Protein refseq:NP_002006.2
FOXO3 Protein refseq:NP_001446.1
NCS1 Protein refseq:NP_055101.2
DOK4 Protein refseq:NP_060580.2
RAP1A Protein refseq:NP_001010935.1
ITGA5 Protein refseq:NP_002196.4
AKT1 Protein refseq:NP_005154.2
PTEN Protein refseq:NP_000305.3
LRIG1 Protein refseq:NP_056356.2
BRAF Protein refseq:NP_004324.2
PLCG2 Protein refseq:NP_002652.2
CALR Protein refseq:NP_004334.1
RABEP1 Protein refseq:NP_004694.2
HSPB1 Protein refseq:NP_001531.1
HSPB1 Protein refseq:NP_001531.1
ITGB3 Protein refseq:NP_000203.2
GAD1 Protein refseq:NP_000808.2
GAD2 Protein refseq:NP_000809.1
SYP Protein refseq:NP_003170.1
SYN1 Protein refseq:NP_008881.2
CREB1 Protein refseq:NP_604391.1
PIK3CB Protein refseq:NP_006210.1
YWHAZ Protein refseq:NP_663723.1
PCDHA4 Protein refseq:NP_061730.1
RAP1GAP Protein refseq:NP_001317312.1
SPHK1 Protein refseq:NP_892010.2
S1PR1 Protein refseq:NP_001391.2
S1PR3 Protein refseq:NP_005217.2
NFKB2 Protein refseq:NP_001070962.1
RELA Protein refseq:NP_068810.3
ITPR1 Protein refseq:NP_001161744.1
ITPR2 Protein refseq:NP_002214.2
CAMK2A Protein refseq:NP_057065.2
CAMK2B Protein refseq:NP_001211.3
APP Protein refseq:NP_000475.1
MTOR Protein refseq:NP_004949.1
CDH2 Protein refseq:NP_001783.2
SORL1 Protein refseq:NP_003096.2
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
SORL1 Protein refseq:NP_003096.2
RET Protein refseq:NP_066124.1
GFRA1 Protein refseq:NP_005255.1
SORL1 Protein refseq:NP_003096.2
RET Protein refseq:NP_066124.1
GFRA1 Protein refseq:NP_005255.1
SORL1 Protein refseq:NP_003096.2
HIF1A Protein refseq:NP_001521.1
VEGFA Protein refseq:NP_003367.4
VAV2 Protein refseq:NP_001127870.1
SLC6A3 Protein refseq:NP_001035.1
RPTOR Protein refseq:NP_065812.1
ST3GAL1 Protein refseq:NP_003024.1
SP1 Protein refseq:NP_612482.2
SP1 Protein refseq:NP_612482.2
ITGB1 Protein refseq:NP_002202.2
ITGA6 Protein refseq:NP_001073286.1
ITGA3 Protein refseq:NP_002195.1
AKT3 Protein refseq:NP_005456.1
CCNA2 Protein refseq:NP_001228.2
CCNB1 Protein refseq:NP_114172.1
CCNE1 Protein refseq:NP_001229.1
MYC Protein refseq:NP_002458.2
BCL6B Protein refseq:NP_862827.2
ETV5 Protein refseq:NP_004445.1
LHX1 Protein refseq:NP_005559.2
AGRN Protein refseq:NP_001292204.1
TGFBR1 Protein refseq:NP_001293139.1
SMAD2 Protein refseq:NP_001003652.1
ROCK2 Protein refseq:NP_004841.2
ESR1 Protein refseq:NP_000116.2
PRKAR2A Protein refseq:NP_001308911.1
GSK3B Protein refseq:NP_002084.2
LYN Protein refseq:NP_002341.1
YES1 Protein refseq:NP_005424.1
MYCN Protein refseq:NP_001280157.1
CD2AP Protein refseq:NP_036252.1
RET Protein refseq:NP_066124.1
CBLC Protein refseq:NP_036248.3
FAT4 Protein refseq:NP_001278232.1
DSG2 Protein refseq:NP_001934.2
SPRY2 Protein refseq:NP_005833.1
SH2B2 Protein refseq:NP_001346157.1
AP2M1 Protein refseq:NP_001298127.1
RPS6KB1 Protein refseq:NP_001258971.1
GFRA1 Protein refseq:NP_005255.1
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
GFRA1 Protein refseq:NP_005255.1
GDNF Protein refseq:2668
SORL1 Protein refseq:NP_003096.2
PDPK1 Protein refseq:NP_002604.1
ITPR3 Protein refseq:NP_002215.2
VEGFA Protein refseq:NP_003367.4
VEGFA Protein refseq:NP_003367.4
FMOD Protein ncbigene:2331
GFRA1 Protein refseq:NP_005255.1


  1. The Ret receptor protein tyrosine kinase associates with the SH2-containing adapter protein Grb10. Pandey A, Duan H, Di Fiore PP, Dixit VM. J Biol Chem. 1995 Sep 15;270(37):21461–3. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. The full oncogenic activity of Ret/ptc2 depends on tyrosine 539, a docking site for phospholipase Cgamma. Borrello MG, Alberti L, Arighi E, Bongarzone I, Battistini C, Bardelli A, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 1996 May;16(5):2151–63. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Direct association between the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and the Src homology 2-containing adapter protein Grb7. Pandey A, Liu X, Dixon JE, Di Fiore PP, Dixit VM. J Biol Chem. 1996 May 3;271(18):10607–10. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Functional receptor for GDNF encoded by the c-ret proto-oncogene. Trupp M, Arenas E, Fainzilber M, Nilsson AS, Sieber BA, Grigoriou M, et al. Nature. 1996 Jun 27;381(6585):785–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. GDNF signalling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. Durbec P, Marcos-Gutierrez CV, Kilkenny C, Grigoriou M, Wartiowaara K, Suvanto P, et al. Nature. 1996 Jun 27;381(6585):789–93. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Characterization of a multicomponent receptor for GDNF. Treanor JJ, Goodman L, de Sauvage F, Stone DM, Poulsen KT, Beck CD, et al. Nature. 1996 Jul 4;382(6586):80–3. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Mitogenic signaling by Ret/ptc2 requires association with enigma via a LIM domain. Durick K, Wu RY, Gill GN, Taylor SS. J Biol Chem. 1996 May 31;271(22):12691–4. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. A mutation at tyrosine 1062 in MEN2A-Ret and MEN2B-Ret impairs their transforming activity and association with shc adaptor proteins. Asai N, Murakami H, Iwashita T, Takahashi M. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jul 26;271(30):17644–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. GDNF-induced activation of the ret protein tyrosine kinase is mediated by GDNFR-alpha, a novel receptor for GDNF. Jing S, Wen D, Yu Y, Holst PL, Luo Y, Fang M, et al. Cell. 1996 Jun 28;85(7):1113–24. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Ligand stimulation of a Ret chimeric receptor carrying the activating mutation responsible for the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. Rizzo C, Califano D, Colucci-D’Amato GL, De Vita G, D’Alessio A, Dathan NA, et al. J Biol Chem. 1996 Nov 15;271(46):29497–501. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. Identification of Shc docking site on Ret tyrosine kinase. Arighi E, Alberti L, Torriti F, Ghizzoni S, Rizzetti MG, Pelicci G, et al. Oncogene. 1997 Feb 20;14(7):773–82. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  12. TrnR2, a novel receptor that mediates neurturin and GDNF signaling through Ret. Baloh RH, Tansey MG, Golden JP, Creedon DJ, Heuckeroth RO, Keck CL, et al. Neuron. 1997 May;18(5):793–802. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  13. Characterization of Ret-Shc-Grb2 complex induced by GDNF, MEN 2A, and MEN 2B mutations. Ohiwa M, Murakami H, Iwashita T, Asai N, Iwata Y, Imai T, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Aug 28;237(3):747–51. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  14. The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B point mutation switches the specificity of the Ret tyrosine kinase towards cellular substrates that are susceptible to interact with Crk and Nck. Bocciardi R, Mograbi B, Pasini B, Borrello MG, Pierotti MA, Bourget I, et al. Oncogene. 1997 Nov 6;15(19):2257–65. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  15. Calcium-dependent Ret activation by GDNF and neurturin. Nozaki C, Asai N, Murakami H, Iwashita T, Iwata Y, Horibe K, et al. Oncogene. 1998 Jan 22;16(3):293–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  16. Multiple GPI-anchored receptors control GDNF-dependent and independent activation of the c-Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. Trupp M, Raynoschek C, Belluardo N, Ibáñez CF. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998 May;11(1–2):47–63. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  17. Grb2 binding to the different isoforms of Ret tyrosine kinase. Alberti L, Borrello MG, Ghizzoni S, Torriti F, Rizzetti MG, Pierotti MA. Oncogene. 1998 Sep 3;17(9):1079–87. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  18. Rho-dependent and -independent tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, paxillin and p130Cas mediated by Ret kinase. Murakami H, Iwashita T, Asai N, Iwata Y, Narumiya S, Takahashi M. Oncogene. 1999 Mar 18;18(11):1975–82. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  19. Ret-dependent and -independent mechanisms of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling in neuronal cells. Trupp M, Scott R, Whittemore SR, Ibáñez CF. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 23;274(30):20885–94. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  20. Enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and high phosphorylation state of its downstream signalling molecules mediated by ret with the MEN 2B mutation. Murakami H, Iwashita T, Asai N, Shimono Y, Iwata Y, Kawai K, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Aug 19;262(1):68–75. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  21. GDNF triggers a novel ret-independent Src kinase family-coupled signaling via a GPI-linked GDNF receptor alpha1. Poteryaev D, Titievsky A, Sun YF, Thomas-Crusells J, Lindahl M, Billaud M, et al. FEBS Lett. 1999 Dec 10;463(1–2):63–6. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  22. Transforming ability of MEN2A-RET requires activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway. Segouffin-Cariou C, Billaud M. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 4;275(5):3568–76. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  23. GFRalpha-mediated localization of RET to lipid rafts is required for effective downstream signaling, differentiation, and neuronal survival. Tansey MG, Baloh RH, Milbrandt J, Johnson EM Jr. Neuron. 2000 Mar;25(3):611–23. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  24. RET receptor expression in thyroid follicular epithelial cell-derived tumors. Bunone G, Uggeri M, Mondellini P, Pierotti MA, Bongarzone I. Cancer Res. 2000 Jun 1;60(11):2845–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  25. Signaling complexes and protein-protein interactions involved in the activation of the Ras and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways by the c-Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. Besset V, Scott RP, Ibáñez CF. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 15;275(50):39159–66. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  26. Characterization of intracellular signals via tyrosine 1062 in RET activated by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Hayashi H, Ichihara M, Iwashita T, Murakami H, Shimono Y, Kawai K, et al. Oncogene. 2000 Sep 14;19(39):4469–75. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  27. c-Src is required for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligand-mediated neuronal survival via a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)-dependent pathway. Encinas M, Tansey MG, Tsui-Pierchala BA, Comella JX, Milbrandt J, Johnson EM Jr. J Neurosci. 2001 Mar 1;21(5):1464–72. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  28. Activation of BMK1 via tyrosine 1062 in RET by GDNF and MEN2A mutation. Hayashi Y, Iwashita T, Murakamai H, Kato Y, Kawai K, Kurokawa K, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Mar 2;281(3):682–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  29. Identification of SNT/FRS2 docking site on RET receptor tyrosine kinase and its role for signal transduction. Kurokawa K, Iwashita T, Murakami H, Hayashi H, Kawai K, Takahashi M. Oncogene. 2001 Apr 12;20(16):1929–38. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  30. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-induced migration and signal transduction in corneal epithelial cells. You L, Ebner S, Kruse FE. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Oct;42(11):2496–504. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  31. GDNF acutely modulates excitability and A-type K(+) channels in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Yang F, Feng L, Zheng F, Johnson SW, Du J, Shen L, et al. Nat Neurosci. 2001 Nov;4(11):1071–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  32. Coordinated activation of autophosphorylation sites in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase: importance of tyrosine 1062 for GDNF mediated neuronal differentiation and survival. Coulpier M, Anders J, Ibáñez CF. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 18;277(3):1991–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  33. Activation of RET tyrosine kinase regulates interleukin-8 production by multiple signaling pathways. Iwahashi N, Murakami H, Nimura Y, Takahashi M. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jun 14;294(3):642–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  34. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor up-regulates the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase gene in human neuroblastoma cell lines. Xiao H, Hirata Y, Isobe KI, Kiuchi K. J Neurochem. 2002 Aug;82(4):801–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  35. GDNF promotes tubulogenesis of GFRalpha1-expressing MDCK cells by Src-mediated phosphorylation of Met receptor tyrosine kinase. Popsueva A, Poteryaev D, Arighi E, Meng X, Angers-Loustau A, Kaplan D, et al. J Cell Biol. 2003 Apr 14;161(1):119–29. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  36. The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is an alternative signaling receptor for GDNF family ligands. Paratcha G, Ledda F, Ibáñez CF. Cell. 2003 Jun 27;113(7):867–79. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  37. Dok-6, a Novel p62 Dok family member, promotes Ret-mediated neurite outgrowth. Crowder RJ, Enomoto H, Yang M, Johnson EM Jr, Milbrandt J. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 1;279(40):42072–81. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  38. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase is required for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-induced migration and invasion of pancreatic carcinoma cells. Veit C, Genze F, Menke A, Hoeffert S, Gress TM, Gierschik P, et al. Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 1;64(15):5291–300. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  39. GDNF-induced leukemia inhibitory factor can mediate differentiation via the MEK/ERK pathway in pheochromocytoma cells derived from nf1-heterozygous knockout mice. Park JI, Powers JF, Tischler AS, Strock CJ, Ball DW, Nelkin BD. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Feb 1;303(1):79–88. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  40. Enteric neuroblasts require the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/Forkhead pathway for GDNF-stimulated survival. Srinivasan S, Anitha M, Mwangi S, Heuckeroth RO. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005 May;29(1):107–19. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  41. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-induced signaling in Schwann cells. Iwase T, Jung CG, Bae H, Zhang M, Soliven B. J Neurochem. 2005 Sep;94(6):1488–99. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  42. Differential effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin in RET/GFRalpha1-expressing cells. Lee RHK, Wong WL, Chan CH, Chan SY. J Neurosci Res. 2006 Jan;83(1):80–90. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  43. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor promotes the arborization of cultured striatal neurons through the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. García-Martínez JM, Pérez-Navarro E, Gavaldà N, Alberch J. J Neurosci Res. 2006 Jan;83(1):68–79. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  44. GDNF family ligands trigger indirect neuroprotective signaling in retinal glial cells. Hauck SM, Kinkl N, Deeg CA, Swiatek-de Lange M, Schöffmann S, Ueffing M. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Apr;26(7):2746–57. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  45. Novel role of neuronal Ca2+ sensor-1 as a survival factor up-regulated in injured neurons. Nakamura TY, Jeromin A, Smith G, Kurushima H, Koga H, Nakabeppu Y, et al. J Cell Biol. 2006 Mar 27;172(7):1081–91. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  46. Interaction of SH2-Bbeta with RET is involved in signaling of GDNF-induced neurite outgrowth. Zhang Y, Zhu W, Wang YG, Liu XJ, Jiao L, Liu X, et al. J Cell Sci. 2006 Apr 15;119(Pt 8):1666–76. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  47. Dok-4 regulates GDNF-dependent neurite outgrowth through downstream activation of Rap1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Uchida M, Enomoto A, Fukuda T, Kurokawa K, Maeda K, Kodama Y, et al. J Cell Sci. 2006 Aug 1;119(Pt 15):3067–77. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  48. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated enteric neuronal survival involves glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation and coupling with 14-3-3. Mwangi S, Anitha M, Fu H, Sitaraman SV, Srinivasan S. Neuroscience. 2006 Nov 17;143(1):241–51. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  49. Role of Src family kinases and N-Myc in spermatogonial stem cell proliferation. Braydich-Stolle L, Kostereva N, Dym M, Hofmann MC. Dev Biol. 2007 Apr 1;304(1):34–45. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  50. The dependence receptor Ret induces apoptosis in somatotrophs through a Pit-1/p53 pathway, preventing tumor growth. Cañibano C, Rodriguez NL, Saez C, Tovar S, Garcia-Lavandeira M, Borrello MG, et al. EMBO J. 2007 Apr 18;26(8):2015–28. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  51. Sprouty2 regulates growth and differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells through RET tyrosine kinase. Ishida M, Ichihara M, Mii S, Jijiwa M, Asai N, Enomoto A, et al. Cancer Sci. 2007 Jun;98(6):815–21. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  52. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin inhibit neurite outgrowth and activate RhoA through GFR alpha 2b, an alternatively spliced isoform of GFR alpha 2. Yoong LF, Too HP. J Neurosci. 2007 May 23;27(21):5603–14. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  53. PTEN modulates GDNF/RET mediated chemotaxis and branching morphogenesis in the developing kidney. Kim D, Dressler GR. Dev Biol. 2007 Jul 15;307(2):290–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  54. Gdnf upregulates c-Fos transcription via the Ras/Erk1/2 pathway to promote mouse spermatogonial stem cell proliferation. He Z, Jiang J, Kokkinaki M, Golestaneh N, Hofmann MC, Dym M. Stem Cells. 2008 Jan;26(1):266–78. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  55. The upregulation of GLAST-1 is an indirect antiapoptotic mechanism of GDNF and neurturin in the adult CNS. Koeberle PD, Bähr M. Cell Death Differ. 2008 Mar;15(3):471–83. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  56. Lrig1 is an endogenous inhibitor of Ret receptor tyrosine kinase activation, downstream signaling, and biological responses to GDNF. Ledda F, Bieraugel O, Fard SS, Vilar M, Paratcha G. J Neurosci. 2008 Jan 2;28(1):39–49. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  57. Integrin beta1 is involved in the signaling of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Cao JP, Yu JK, Li C, Sun Y, Yuan HH, Wang HJ, et al. J Comp Neurol. 2008 Jul 10;509(2):203–10. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  58. Analysis of Ret knockin mice reveals a critical role for IKKs, but not PI 3-K, in neurotrophic factor-induced survival of sympathetic neurons. Encinas M, Rozen EJ, Dolcet X, Jain S, Comella JX, Milbrandt J, et al. Cell Death Differ. 2008 Sep;15(9):1510–21. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  59. The involvement of NF-kappaB p65/p52 in the effects of GDNF on DA neurons in early PD rats. Cao JP, Wang HJ, Yu JK, Liu HM, Gao DS. Brain Res Bull. 2008 Jul 30;76(5):505–11. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  60. Calbindin-D28K expression induced by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in substantia nigra neurons dependent on PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Wang HJ, Cao JP, Yu JK, Zhang LC, Jiang ZJ, Gao DS. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct 24;595(1–3):7–12. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  61. CD2AP and Cbl-3/Cbl-c constitute a critical checkpoint in the regulation of ret signal transduction. Tsui CC, Pierchala BA. J Neurosci. 2008 Aug 27;28(35):8789–800. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  62. Phosphoproteome study reveals Hsp27 as a novel signaling molecule involved in GDNF-induced neurite outgrowth. Hong Z, Zhang QY, Liu J, Wang ZQ, Zhang Y, Xiao Q, et al. J Proteome Res. 2009 Jun;8(6):2768–87. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  63. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor increases migration of human chondrosarcoma cells via ERK and NF-kappaB pathways. Su CM, Lu DY, Hsu CJ, Chen HT, Huang CY, Yang WH, et al. J Cell Physiol. 2009 Aug;220(2):499–507. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  64. beta1 integrin is necessary for ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and maintenance of collecting duct structural integrity. Zhang X, Mernaugh G, Yang DH, Gewin L, Srichai MB, Harris RC, et al. Development. 2009 Oct;136(19):3357–66. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  65. Transgene-mediated GDNF expression enhances synaptic connectivity and GABA transmission to improve functional outcome after spinal cord contusion. Koelsch A, Feng Y, Fink DJ, Mata M. J Neurochem. 2010 Apr;113(1):143–52. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  66. Targeting the receptor tyrosine kinase RET sensitizes breast cancer cells to tamoxifen treatment and reveals a role for RET in endocrine resistance. Plaza-Menacho I, Morandi A, Robertson D, Pancholi S, Drury S, Dowsett M, et al. Oncogene. 2010 Aug 19;29(33):4648–57. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  67. Phosphorylation of protocadherin proteins by the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret. Schalm SS, Ballif BA, Buchanan SM, Phillips GR, Maniatis T. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 3;107(31):13894–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  68. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 contributes to GDNF neurotrophic activity through direct binding to phospho-Tyr687 in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Perrinjaquet M, Vilar M, Ibáñez CF. J Biol Chem. 2010 Oct 8;285(41):31867–75. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  69. Rap1GAP interacts with RET and suppresses GDNF-induced neurite outgrowth. Jiao L, Zhang Y, Hu C, Wang YG, Huang A, He C. Cell Res. 2011 Feb;21(2):327–37. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  70. Nature and duration of growth factor signaling through receptor tyrosine kinases regulates HSV-1 latency in neurons. Camarena V, Kobayashi M, Kim JY, Roehm P, Perez R, Gardner J, et al. Cell Host Microbe. 2010 Oct 21;8(4):320–30. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  71. GDNF stimulates the proliferation of cultured mouse immature Sertoli cells via its receptor subunit NCAM and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Yang Y, Han C. BMC Cell Biol. 2010 Oct 18;11:78. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  72. Loss of Sprouty2 partially rescues renal hypoplasia and stomach hypoganglionosis but not intestinal aganglionosis in Ret Y1062F mutant mice. Miyamoto R, Jijiwa M, Asai M, Kawai K, Ishida-Takagishi M, Mii S, et al. Dev Biol. 2011 Jan 15;349(2):160–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  73. Sphingosine kinase 1/S1P pathway involvement in the GDNF-induced GAP43 transcription. Murakami M, Ito H, Hagiwara K, Kobayashi M, Hoshikawa A, Takagi A, et al. J Cell Biochem. 2011 Nov;112(11):3449–58. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  74. NANOS2 acts downstream of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling to suppress differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells. Sada A, Hasegawa K, Pin PH, Saga Y. Stem Cells. 2012 Feb;30(2):280–91. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  75. Identification of a key motif that determines the differential surface levels of RET and TrkB tyrosine kinase receptors and controls depolarization enhanced RET surface insertion. Li XZ, Yan J, Huang SH, Zhao L, Wang J, Chen ZY. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 13;287(3):1932–45. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  76. A new alternative NF-κB pathway mediated the neuroprotection of GDNF on 6-OHDA-induced DA neurons neurotoxicity. Sun Y, Huang X, Liu M, Cao J, Chen J, Wang H, et al. Brain Res. 2012 Feb 9;1437:38–49. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  77. Ret is a multifunctional coreceptor that integrates diffusible- and contact-axon guidance signals. Bonanomi D, Chivatakarn O, Bai G, Abdesselem H, Lettieri K, Marquardt T, et al. Cell. 2012 Feb 3;148(3):568–82. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  78. GDNF restores human blood-nerve barrier function via RET tyrosine kinase-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization. Yosef N, Ubogu EE. Microvasc Res. 2012 May;83(3):298–310. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  79. RET PLCγ phosphotyrosine binding domain regulates Ca2+ signaling and neocortical neuronal migration. Lundgren TK, Nakahata K, Fritz N, Rebellato P, Zhang S, Uhlén P. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31258. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  80. Control of Aβ release from human neurons by differentiation status and RET signaling. Scholz D, Chernyshova Y, Leist M. Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Jan;34(1):184–99. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  81. Involvement of N-cadherin in the protective effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on dopaminergic neuron damage. Zuo T, Qin JY, Chen J, Shi Z, Liu M, Gao X, et al. Int J Mol Med. 2013 Mar;31(3):561–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  82. SorLA controls neurotrophic activity by sorting of GDNF and its receptors GFRα1 and RET. Glerup S, Lume M, Olsen D, Nyengaard JR, Vaegter CB, Gustafsen C, et al. Cell Rep. 2013 Jan 31;3(1):186–99. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  83. NF-κB p65/p52 plays a role in GDNF up-regulating Bcl-2 and Bcl-w expression in 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis of MN9D cell. Cao JP, Niu HY, Wang HJ, Huang XG, Gao DS. Int J Neurosci. 2013 Oct;123(10):705–10. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  84. GDNF-RET signaling in ER-positive breast cancers is a key determinant of response and resistance to aromatase inhibitors. Morandi A, Martin LA, Gao Q, Pancholi S, Mackay A, Robertson D, et al. Cancer Res. 2013 Jun 15;73(12):3783–95. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  85. Concerted interaction of TGF-β and GDNF mediates neuronal differentiation. Zajzon K, Pröls F, Heermann S. Neuroreport. 2013 Sep 11;24(13):704–11. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  86. GDNF signaling levels control migration and neuronal differentiation of enteric ganglion precursors. Uesaka T, Nagashimada M, Enomoto H. J Neurosci. 2013 Oct 9;33(41):16372–82. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  87. GDNF increases cell motility in human colon cancer through VEGF-VEGFR1 interaction. Huang SM, Chen TS, Chiu CM, Chang LK, Liao KF, Tan HM, et al. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013 Dec 20;21(1):73–84. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  88. CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) enhances casitas B lineage lymphoma-3/c (Cbl-3/c)-mediated Ret isoform-specific ubiquitination and degradation via its amino-terminal Src homology 3 domains. Calco GN, Stephens OR, Donahue LM, Tsui CC, Pierchala BA. J Biol Chem. 2014 Mar 14;289(11):7307–19. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  89. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity. Mwangi SM, Nezami BG, Obukwelu B, Anitha M, Marri S, Fu P, et al. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Mar;306(6):G515-25. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  90. GM1 ganglioside enhances Ret signaling in striatum. Newburn EN, Duchemin AM, Neff NH, Hadjiconstantinou M. J Neurochem. 2014 Aug;130(4):541–54. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  91. Selective inhibition of RET mediated cell proliferation in vitro by the kinase inhibitor SPP86. Alao JP, Michlikova S, Dinér P, Grøtli M, Sunnerhagen P. BMC Cancer. 2014 Nov 20;14:853. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  92. Functional differences between GDNF-dependent and FGF2-dependent mouse spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal. Takashima S, Kanatsu-Shinohara M, Tanaka T, Morimoto H, Inoue K, Ogonuki N, et al. Stem Cell Reports. 2015 Mar 10;4(3):489–502. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  93. Identification of a Vav2-dependent mechanism for GDNF/Ret control of mesolimbic DAT trafficking. Zhu S, Zhao C, Wu Y, Yang Q, Shao A, Wang T, et al. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Aug;18(8):1084–93. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  94. Distinct Temporal Regulation of RET Isoform Internalization: Roles of Clathrin and AP2. Crupi MJF, Yoganathan P, Bone LN, Lian E, Fetz A, Antonescu CN, et al. Traffic. 2015 Nov;16(11):1155–73. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  95. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic PPAR-γ expression. Mwangi SM, Peng S, Nezami BG, Thorn N, Farris AB 3rd, Jain S, et al. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Jan 15;310(2):G103-16. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  96. Smoothened-independent activation of hedgehog signaling by rearranged during transfection promotes neuroblastoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Ruan H, Luo H, Wang J, Ji X, Zhang Z, Wu J, et al. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 Sep;1860(9):1961–72. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  97. GDNF From Human Periodontal Ligament Cells Treated With Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Promotes Neurocytic Differentiation of PC12 Cells. Yoshida S, Yamamoto N, Wada N, Tomokiyo A, Hasegawa D, Hamano S, et al. J Cell Biochem. 2017 Apr;118(4):699–708. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  98. The Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)-responsive Phosphoprotein Landscape Identifies Raptor Phosphorylation Required for Spermatogonial Progenitor Cell Proliferation. Wang M, Guo Y, Wang M, Zhou T, Xue Y, Du G, et al. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2017 Jun;16(6):982–97. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  99. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor promotes dental pulp stem cell migration. Xiao N, Yu WY, Liu D. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2018 Mar;12(3):705–14. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  100. Reciprocal feedback regulation of ST3GAL1 and GFRA1 signaling in breast cancer cells. Fan TC, Yeo HL, Hsu HM, Yu JC, Ho MY, Lin WD, et al. Cancer Lett. 2018 Oct 10;434:184–95. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  101. Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) Promotes Angiogenesis through the Demethylation of the Fibromodulin (FMOD) Promoter in Glioblastoma. Chen M, Ba H, Lu C, Dai J, Sun J. Med Sci Monit. 2018 Sep 3;24:6137–43. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  102. The laminin binding α3 and α6 integrins cooperate to promote epithelial cell adhesion and growth. Yazlovitskaya EM, Viquez OM, Tu T, De Arcangelis A, Georges-Labouesse E, Sonnenberg A, et al. Matrix Biol. 2019 Apr;77:101–16. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  103. FAT4 Fine-Tunes Kidney Development by Regulating RET Signaling. Zhang H, Bagherie-Lachidan M, Badouel C, Enderle L, Peidis P, Bremner R, et al. Dev Cell. 2019 Mar 25;48(6):780-792.e4. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  104. AKT3 Is a Pivotal Molecule of Cadherin-22 and GDNF Family Receptor-α1 Signal Pathways Regulating Self-Renewal in Female Germline Stem Cells. Zhang X, Wei R, Sun Y, Xia Q, Xie W, Song H, et al. Stem Cells. 2019 Aug;37(8):1095–107. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  105. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mediates hepatic stellate cell activation via ALK5/Smad signalling. Tao L, Ma W, Wu L, Xu M, Yang Y, Zhang W, et al. Gut. 2019 Dec;68(12):2214–27. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  106. Neurotrophic factor GDNF regulates intestinal barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease. Meir M, Burkard N, Ungewiß H, Diefenbacher M, Flemming S, Kannapin F, et al. J Clin Invest. 2019 Jun 17;129(7):2824–40. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  107. RET isoform-specific interaction with scaffold protein Ezrin promotes cell migration and chemotaxis in lung adenocarcinoma. Moodley S, Lian EY, Crupi MJF, Hyndman BD, Mulligan LM. Lung Cancer. 2020 Apr;142:123–31. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia