Hormonal control of pubertal growth spurt (WP4194)

Homo sapiens

This pathway shows the regulation and action of the GH-IGF-1 axis. Chondrogenesis in the growth plate is the biological process that drives height gain. The Growth hormone (GH) insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis is one of many regulatory systems that control chondrogenesis. Other hormones (estrogens, androgens), paracrine factors, extracellular matrix molecules and intracellular proteins regulate the activity of growth plate chondrocytes as well. Estrogen is critical for epiphyseal fusion in both young women, as well as men. This pathway describes how the growth plate lengthens until the epypheseal plate closure occurs. GH is released by the anterior pituitary gland due to the GRH. This activates IGF-1 in muscles and bones, and promotes lengthening of the growth plate. Also, GnRH in the hypothalamus stimulates LH and FSH in the anterior pituitary which stimulate gonads to produce sex hormones, such as estrogen.


Denise Slenter , Eric Weitz , Finterly Hu , and Marvin Martens


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Homo sapiens



Pathway Ontology

growth factor signaling pathway insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway

Disease Ontology

growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma


Label Type Compact URI Comment
Estrogens Metabolite chebi:50114
IGF1 GeneProduct ncbigene:3479
GnRH GeneProduct ncbigene:2796
GHRH GeneProduct ncbigene:2691
SST GeneProduct ncbigene:6750
GH GeneProduct ncbigene:2688
FSH GeneProduct ncbiprotein:449322
LH GeneProduct ncbiprotein:3972
IGF1 GeneProduct ncbigene:3479


  1. Introduction to Neuroendocrinology [Internet]. Brown R. Cambridge University Press; 2009. Available from: https://openlibrary.org/books/OL34441625M/Introduction_to_Neuroendocrinology OpenLibrary Worldcat
  2. Dose effects of growth hormone during puberty. Saenger P. Horm Res. 2003;60(Suppl 1):52–7. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia