Allantoin degradation (WP328)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

The allantoin degradation pathway, which converts allantoin to ammonia and carbon dioxide, allows S. cerevisiae to use allantoin as a sole nitrogen source. Conversion of allantoin to ammonia is carried out by the DAL1, DAL2, and DAL3 gene products, which work sequentially to generate urea (CITS: [3915539]). Urea is then degraded to ammonia in a two-step process by the DUR1,2 protein, a multifunctional single enzyme originally thought to be encoded by two tightly-linked genes (hence the name DUR1,2; (CITS: [6105114]). The allantoin catabolic pathway genes are regulated by a general signal that responds to the availability of readily utilizable nitrogen sources, and also by pathway-specific induction by allantoin or the intermediate allophanate. These regulatory effects are mediated by cis-acting DNA elements and the trans-acting factors Gln3p, Gat1p, Dal80p, Dal81p, and Dal82p (CITS: [10488154])(CITS: [12062797])(CITS: [10702289])(CITS: [7899074]). SOURCE: SGD pathways,


Meredith Braymer , Michiel Adriaens , Egon Willighagen , Martina Summer-Kutmon , Kristina Hanspers , and Eric Weitz


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Saccharomyces cerevisiae



Pathway Ontology

nitrogen metabolic pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
urea Metabolite cas:57-13-6
urea Metabolite cas:57-13-6
urea-1-carboxylate Metabolite chebi:15832
(S)-ureidoglycolate Metabolite chebi:57296
ATP Metabolite cas:1927-31-7
ADP Metabolite cas:58-64-0
allantoate Metabolite chebi:17536
allantoin Metabolite cas:97-59-6
phosphate Metabolite cas:14265-44-2
DUR1,2 GeneProduct sgd:S000000412
DAL1 GeneProduct sgd:S000001466
DAL3 GeneProduct sgd:S000001471
DAL2 GeneProduct sgd:S000001468
DUR1,2 GeneProduct sgd:S000000412


  1. Structural analysis of the dur loci in S. cerevisiae: two domains of a single multifunctional gene. Cooper TG, Lam C, Turoscy V. Genetics. 1980 Mar;94(3):555–80. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Birth of a metabolic gene cluster in yeast by adaptive gene relocation. Wong S, Wolfe KH. Nat Genet. 2005 Jul;37(7):777–82. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia