Serotonin receptor 4/6/7 and NR3C signaling (WP3272)

Bos taurus

This pathway depicts the downstream signaling of serotonin via receptors 4, 6, and 7, resulting in the activation of EGR1 and NR3C1.


Martina Summer-Kutmon , Egon Willighagen , Eric Weitz , and Alex Pico


last edited

Discuss this pathway

Check for ongoing discussions or start your own.

Cited In

Are you planning to include this pathway in your next publication? See How to Cite and add a link here to your paper once it's online.


Bos taurus



Cell Type Ontology


Pathway Ontology

serotonin signaling pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
Cyclic AMP Metabolite cas:60-92-4
serotonin Metabolite cas:50-67-9
BRAF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000021761 v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:673
HTR7 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000008783 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 7
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3363
SRF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000012777 serum response factor
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6722
ELK4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004953 ETS domain-containing protein Elk-4 (SRF accessory protein 1)
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2005
EGR1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010069 early growth response protein
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1958
HTR6 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000007996 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 6
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3362
GNAS GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000017475 GNAS (guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating)
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2778
ATF1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000018131 activating transcription factor 1
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:466
MAP2K2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000024450 mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 2
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5605
MAPK3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016156 mitogen activated protein kinase 3
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5595
CREB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005474 cAMP response element-binding protein 1
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1385
MAPK1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010312 mitogen activated protein kinase 1
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = H:MAPK1
MAP2K1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000033983 mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 1
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5604
RPS6KA5 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010906 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, polypeptide 5
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:9252
GR-A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019472 nuclear receptor, subfamily 3, group C, member 1
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2908
RAP1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000014710 RAS-related protein-1a
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5906
MAPKAPK2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000038107 MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:9261
ELK1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000015817 ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2002
HTR4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010837 5 hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 4
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3360


  1. A pyruvate-stimulated adenylate cyclase has a sequence related to the fes/fps oncogenes and to eukaryotic cyclases. Peters EP, Wilderspin AF, Wood SP, Zvelebil MJ, Sezer O, Danchin A. Mol Microbiol. 1991 May;5(5):1175–81. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Evidence for the endogenous GTP-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory guanyl-nucleotide-binding protein concomitant with an increase in basal adenylyl cyclase activity in chicken spleen cell membrane. Obara S, Yamada K, Yoshimura Y, Shimoyama M. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Aug 15;200(1):75–80. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 by mutation of phosphorylation sites and an A-helix motif. Engel K, Schultz H, Martin F, Kotlyarov A, Plath K, Hahn M, et al. J Biol Chem. 1995 Nov 10;270(45):27213–21. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Transcriptional activation of egr-1 by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor but not interleukin 3 requires phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) on serine 133. Lee HJ, Mignacca RC, Sakamoto KM. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jul 7;270(27):15979–83. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Regulation of rDNA transcription factors during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by adrenergic agents. Hannan RD, Luyken J, Rothblum LI. J Biol Chem. 1995 Apr 7;270(14):8290–7. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. B-Raf protein isoforms interact with and phosphorylate Mek-1 on serine residues 218 and 222. Papin C, Eychène A, Brunet A, Pagès G, Pouysségur J, Calothy G, et al. Oncogene. 1995 Apr 20;10(8):1647–51. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. An in vitro model of thyroid neoplasia: permanently transfected FRTL-5 cells with thyroglobulin promoter-cholera toxin A1 subunit minigene. Saji M, Levine MA, Zeiger MA. Surgery. 1994 Dec;116(6):1048–52; discussion 1052-3. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase by Ca,phospholipid-dependent and cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Mapping of the region phosphorylated by Ca,phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. Chibalin AV, Lopina OD, Petukhov SP, Vasilets LA. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1993 Feb;25(1):61–6. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Vasopressin and protein kinase A activate G protein-sensitive epithelial Na+ channels. Prat AG, Ausiello DA, Cantiello HF. Am J Physiol. 1993 Jul;265(1 Pt 1):C218-23. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Parturition: activation of stimulatory pathways or loss of uterine quiescence? López Bernal A, Rivera J, Europe-Finner GN, Phaneuf S, Asbóth G. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1995;395:435–51. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. Identification of novel phosphorylation sites required for activation of MAPKAP kinase-2. Ben-Levy R, Leighton IA, Doza YN, Attwood P, Morrice N, Marshall CJ, et al. EMBO J. 1995 Dec 1;14(23):5920–30. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  12. FGF and stress regulate CREB and ATF-1 via a pathway involving p38 MAP kinase and MAPKAP kinase-2. Tan Y, Rouse J, Zhang A, Cariati S, Cohen P, Comb MJ. EMBO J. 1996 Sep 2;15(17):4629–42. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  13. Stimulation of stress-activated protein kinase and p38 HOG1 kinase in murine keratinocytes following photodynamic therapy with benzoporphyrin derivative. Tao J, Sanghera JS, Pelech SL, Wong G, Levy JG. J Biol Chem. 1996 Oct 25;271(43):27107–15. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  14. Chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 in human neutrophils. Krump E, Sanghera JS, Pelech SL, Furuya W, Grinstein S. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jan 10;272(2):937–44. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation is involved in platelet-derived growth factor-directed migration by vascular smooth muscle cells. Graf K, Xi XP, Yang D, Fleck E, Hsueh WA, Law RE. Hypertension. 1997 Jan;29(1 Pt 2):334–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  16. Conformation-dependent activation of type II adenylyl cyclase by protein kinase C. Ebina T, Kawabe J, Katada T, Ohno S, Homcy CJ, Ishikawa Y. J Cell Biochem. 1997 Mar 1;64(3):492–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  17. cAMP activates MAP kinase and Elk-1 through a B-Raf- and Rap1-dependent pathway. Vossler MR, Yao H, York RD, Pan MG, Rim CS, Stork PJ. Cell. 1997 Apr 4;89(1):73–82. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  18. Convergence of MAP kinase pathways on the ternary complex factor Sap-1a. Janknecht R, Hunter T. EMBO J. 1997 Apr 1;16(7):1620–7. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  19. Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is mediated by distinct and separate stress effector pathways. Wesselborg S, Bauer MK, Vogt M, Schmitz ML, Schulze-Osthoff K. J Biol Chem. 1997 May 9;272(19):12422–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  20. Dexamethasone increases G alpha q-11 expression and hormone-stimulated phospholipase C activity in UMR-106-01 cells. Mitchell J, Bansal A. Am J Physiol. 1997 Sep;273(3 Pt 1):E528-35. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  21. Inducible expression of a mutant form of MEK1 in Swiss 3T3 cells. Syu LJ, Guan KL, Saltiel AR. J Cell Biochem. 1997 Dec 1;67(3):367–77. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  22. PKC-epsilon is required for mechano-sensitive activation of ERK1/2 in endothelial cells. Traub O, Monia BP, Dean NM, Berk BC. J Biol Chem. 1997 Dec 12;272(50):31251–7. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  23. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the rapid induction of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein in 9L rat brain tumor cells. Chen KD, Chen LY, Huang HL, Lieu CH, Chang YN, Chang MD, et al. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jan 9;273(2):749–55. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  24. Stimulation of type 1 and type 8 Ca2+/calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclases by the Gs-coupled 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 5-HT7A receptor. Baker LP, Nielsen MD, Impey S, Metcalf MA, Poser SW, Chan G, et al. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 10;273(28):17469–76. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  25. Prostaglandin F2alpha stimulates the Raf/MEK1/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade in bovine luteal cells. Chen DB, Westfall SD, Fong HW, Roberson MS, Davis JS. Endocrinology. 1998 Sep;139(9):3876–85. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  26. Modulation of kinase activity and oncogenic properties by alternative splicing reveals a novel regulatory mechanism for B-Raf. Papin C, Denouel-Galy A, Laugier D, Calothy G, Eychène A. J Biol Chem. 1998 Sep 18;273(38):24939–47. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  27. Induction of collagenase-3 (MMP-13) expression in human skin fibroblasts by three-dimensional collagen is mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Ravanti L, Heino J, López-Otín C, Kähäri VM. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 22;274(4):2446–55. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  28. Nuclear translocation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for growth factor-induced gene expression and cell cycle entry. Brunet A, Roux D, Lenormand P, Dowd S, Keyse S, Pouysségur J. EMBO J. 1999 Feb 1;18(3):664–74. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  29. Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. Schoenbaum G, Chiba AA, Gallagher M. J Neurosci. 1999 Mar 1;19(5):1876–84. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  30. Corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 and type 2alpha receptors regulate phosphorylation of calcium/cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate response element-binding protein and activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Rossant CJ, Pinnock RD, Hughes J, Hall MD, McNulty S. Endocrinology. 1999 Apr;140(4):1525–36. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  31. Quinolinic acid is extruded from the brain by a probenecid-sensitive carrier system: a quantitative analysis. Morrison PF, Morishige GM, Beagles KE, Heyes MP. J Neurochem. 1999 May;72(5):2135–44. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  32. MAPKAP kinase 2 phosphorylates serum response factor in vitro and in vivo. Heidenreich O, Neininger A, Schratt G, Zinck R, Cahill MA, Engel K, et al. J Biol Chem. 1999 May 14;274(20):14434–43. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  33. Stress-induced stimulation of early growth response gene-1 by p38/stress-activated protein kinase 2 is mediated by a cAMP-responsive promoter element in a MAPKAP kinase 2-independent manner. Rolli M, Kotlyarov A, Sakamoto KM, Gaestel M, Neininger A. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 9;274(28):19559–64. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  34. Effects of geldanamycin on signaling through activator-protein 1 in hypoxic HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Vasilevskaya IA, O’Dwyer PJ. Cancer Res. 1999 Aug 15;59(16):3935–40. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  35. TNF-mediated activation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway: TNF receptor-associated factor 2 recruits and activates germinal center kinase related. Shi CS, Leonardi A, Kyriakis J, Siebenlist U, Kehrl JH. J Immunol. 1999 Sep 15;163(6):3279–85. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  36. The p38 MAP kinase pathway signals for cytokine-induced mRNA stabilization via MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 and an AU-rich region-targeted mechanism. Winzen R, Kracht M, Ritter B, Wilhelm A, Chen CY, Shyu AB, et al. EMBO J. 1999 Sep 15;18(18):4969–80. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  37. Cholera toxin induces tumor necrosis factor alpha production in human monocytes. Yan Z, Yang DC, Jett M. Mol Cell Biol Res Commun. 1999 Aug;2(2):124–30. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  38. Effect of contraction on mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction in skeletal muscle. Involvement Of the mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1. Ryder JW, Fahlman R, Wallberg-Henriksson H, Alessi DR, Krook A, Zierath JR. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 14;275(2):1457–62. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  39. Insulin-like growth factor I activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Monno S, Newman MV, Cook M, Lowe WL Jr. Endocrinology. 2000 Feb;141(2):544–50. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  40. Arachidonic acid activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase 2 and mediates adhesion of a human breast carcinoma cell line to collagen type IV through a p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. Paine E, Palmantier R, Akiyama SK, Olden K, Roberts JD. J Biol Chem. 2000 Apr 14;275(15):11284–90. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  41. Identification of the adenylyl cyclase-activating 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtypes expressed in the rat submandibular gland. Bourdon DM, Camden JM, Landon LA, Levy FO, Turner JT. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 May;130(1):104–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  42. A novel rap1/B-Raf/14-3-3 theta protein complex is formed in vivo during the morphogenetic differentiation of postmeiotic male germ cells. Berruti G. Exp Cell Res. 2000 May 25;257(1):172–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  43. Transcription-dependent neuronal plasticity: The nuclear calcium hypothesis. Bading H. Eur J Biochem. 2000 Sep;267(17):5280–3. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  44. Distinct roles of the adaptor protein Shc and focal adhesion kinase in integrin signaling to ERK. Barberis L, Wary KK, Fiucci G, Liu F, Hirsch E, Brancaccio M, et al. J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 24;275(47):36532–40. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  45. Thyroid-stimulating hormone and cyclic AMP activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Involvement of protein kinase A, rac1, and reactive oxygen species. Pomerance M, Abdullah HB, Kamerji S, Correze C, Blondeau JP. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 22;275(51):40539–46. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  46. Intracellular calcium mobilization induces immediate early gene pip92 via Src and mitogen-activated protein kinase in immortalized hippocampal cells. Chung KC, Sung JY, Ahn W, Rhim H, Oh TH, Lee MG, et al. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 19;276(3):2132–8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  47. Novel nuclear target for thrombin: activation of the Elk1 transcription factor leads to chemokine gene expression. Li QJ, Vaingankar S, Sladek FM, Martins-Green M. Blood. 2000 Dec 1;96(12):3696–706. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  48. Role of p38 MAP kinase in endothelial cell alignment induced by fluid shear stress. Azuma N, Akasaka N, Kito H, Ikeda M, Gahtan V, Sasajima T, et al. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Jan;280(1):H189-97. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  49. Dmrt1 expression is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone and phorbol esters in postnatal Sertoli cells. Chen JK, Heckert LL. Endocrinology. 2001 Mar;142(3):1167–78. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  50. Cell-cycle-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK-1/2) in myeloid leukemia cell lines and induction of growth inhibition and apoptosis by inhibitors of RAS signaling. Morgan MA, Dolp O, Reuter CW. Blood. 2001 Mar 15;97(6):1823–34. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  51. Oxidant stress and endothelial cell dysfunction. Lum H, Roebuck KA. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001 Apr;280(4):C719-41. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  52. Selective blockade of neurokinin (NK)(1) receptors facilitates the activity of adrenergic pathways projecting to frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus in rats. Millan MJ, Lejeune F, De Nanteuil G, Gobert A. J Neurochem. 2001 Mar;76(6):1949–54. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  53. Basic fibroblast growth factor-induced activation of novel CREB kinase during the differentiation of immortalized hippocampal cells. Sung JY, Shin SW, Ahn YS, Chung KC. J Biol Chem. 2001 Apr 27;276(17):13858–66. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  54. Constitutive ERK1/2 activation in esophagogastric rib bone marrow micrometastatic cells is MEK-independent. Barry OP, Mullan B, Sheehan D, Kazanietz MG, Shanahan F, Collins JK, et al. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 4;276(18):15537–46. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  55. The B-box dominates SAP-1-SRF interactions in the structure of the ternary complex. Hassler M, Richmond TJ. EMBO J. 2001 Jun 15;20(12):3018–28. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  56. Altered regulation of ERK1b by MEK1 and PTP-SL and modified Elk1 phosphorylation by ERK1b are caused by abrogation of the regulatory C-terminal sequence of ERKs. Yung Y, Yao Z, Aebersold DM, Hanoch T, Seger R. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 21;276(38):35280–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  57. Glucose activates protein kinase C-zeta /lambda through proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and phospholipase D: a novel mechanism for activating glucose transporter translocation. Bandyopadhyay G, Sajan MP, Kanoh Y, Standaert ML, Quon MJ, Reed BC, et al. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 21;276(38):35537–45. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  58. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin D1 are required for excitotoxin-induced neuronal cell death in vivo. Ino H, Chiba T. J Neurosci. 2001 Aug 15;21(16):6086–94. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  59. Lipopolysaccharide activation of the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway in human monocytic cells mediates tissue factor and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression by inducing Elk-1 phosphorylation and Egr-1 expression. Guha M, O’Connell MA, Pawlinski R, Hollis A, McGovern P, Yan SF, et al. Blood. 2001 Sep 1;98(5):1429–39. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  60. Open-system approaches to gene expression in the CNS. Sutcliffe JG. J Neurosci. 2001 Nov 1;21(21):8306–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  61. cAMP response element-binding protein mediates thrombin-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Tokunou T, Ichiki T, Takeda K, Funakoshi Y, Iino N, Takeshita A. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Nov;21(11):1764–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  62. Mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for bryostatin 1-induced differentiation of the human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Reh. Wall NR, Mohammad RM, Al-Katib AM. Cell Growth Differ. 2001 Dec;12(12):641–7. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  63. Differences in signal transduction of two 5-HT4 receptor splice variants: compound specificity and dual coupling with Galphas- and Galphai/o-proteins. Pindon A, van Hecke G, van Gompel P, Lesage AS, Leysen JE, Jurzak M. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;61(1):85–96. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  64. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates c-Src-mediated big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (BMK1) and the MEF2C signaling pathway in PC12 cells: potential role in cell survival following oxidative insults. Suzaki Y, Yoshizumi M, Kagami S, Koyama AH, Taketani Y, Houchi H, et al. J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 15;277(11):9614–21. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  65. Transient protein-protein interactions and a random-ordered kinetic mechanism for the phosphorylation of a transcription factor by extracellular-regulated protein kinase 2. Waas WF, Dalby KN. J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 12;277(15):12532–40. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  66. GnRH regulates early growth response protein 1 transcription through multiple promoter elements. Duan WR, Ito M, Park Y, Maizels ET, Hunzicker-Dunn M, Jameson JL. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Feb;16(2):221–33. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  67. The activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is regulated by differential phosphorylation in the activation loop. Zhou B, Zhang ZY. J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 19;277(16):13889–99. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  68. Crystal structure of a ternary SAP-1/SRF/c-fos SRE DNA complex. Mo Y, Ho W, Johnston K, Marmorstein R. J Mol Biol. 2001 Nov 30;314(3):495–506. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  69. Silymarin inhibits growth and causes regression of established skin tumors in SENCAR mice via modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induction of apoptosis. Singh RP, Tyagi AK, Zhao J, Agarwal R. Carcinogenesis. 2002 Mar;23(3):499–510. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  70. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-independent functions of Raf kinases. Hindley A, Kolch W. J Cell Sci. 2002 Apr 15;115(Pt 8):1575–81. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  71. Induction of neuronal differentiation by a peptide corresponding to the homophilic binding site of the second Ig module of the neural cell adhesion molecule. Soroka V, Kiryushko D, Novitskaya V, Ronn LCB, Poulsen FM, Holm A, et al. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 5;277(27):24676–83. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  72. Prolonged nuclear retention of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 is required for hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell motility. Tanimura S, Nomura K, Ozaki K ichi, Tsujimoto M, Kondo T, Kohno M. J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 2;277(31):28256–64. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  73. Direct biochemical evidence for type III secretion-dependent translocation of the AvrBs2 effector protein into plant cells. Casper-Lindley C, Dahlbeck D, Clark ET, Staskawicz BJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 11;99(12):8336–41. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  74. Rac-PAK signaling stimulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation by regulating formation of MEK1-ERK complexes. Eblen ST, Slack JK, Weber MJ, Catling AD. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Sep;22(17):6023–33. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  75. Complement-induced impairment of innate immunity during sepsis. Huber-Lang MS, Younkin EM, Sarma JV, McGuire SR, Lu KT, Guo RF, et al. J Immunol. 2002 Sep 15;169(6):3223–31. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  76. Duality of G protein-coupled mechanisms for beta-adrenergic activation of NKCC activity in skeletal muscle. Gosmanov AR, Wong JA, Thomason DB. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002 Oct;283(4):C1025-32. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  77. Dopamine-D2S receptor inhibition of calcium influx, adenylyl cyclase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase in pituitary cells: distinct Galpha and Gbetagamma requirements. Banihashemi B, Albert PR. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2393–404. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  78. ERK1/2 antagonizes glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-induced apoptosis in cortical neurons. Hetman M, Hsuan SL, Habas A, Higgins MJ, Xia Z. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 20;277(51):49577–84. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  79. ATF1 phosphorylation by the ERK MAPK pathway is required for epidermal growth factor-induced c-jun expression. Gupta P, Prywes R. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 27;277(52):50550–6. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  80. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling is uncoupled from initial differentiation of central nervous system stem cells to neurons. Enarsson M, Erlandsson A, Larsson H, Forsberg-Nilsson K. Mol Cancer Res. 2002 Dec;1(2):147–54. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  81. Phosphorylation of hippocampal Erk-1/2, Elk-1, and p90-Rsk-1 during contextual fear conditioning: interactions between Erk-1/2 and Elk-1. Sananbenesi F, Fischer A, Schrick C, Spiess J, Radulovic J. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002 Nov;21(3):463–76. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  82. Egr-1 induction in rat granulosa cells by follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone: combinatorial regulation by transcription factors cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate regulatory element binding protein, serum response factor, sp1, and early growth response factor-1. Russell DL, Doyle KMH, Gonzales-Robayna I, Pipaon C, Richards JS. Mol Endocrinol. 2003 Apr;17(4):520–33. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  83. pp90RSK- and protein kinase C-dependent pathway regulates p42/44MAPK-induced LDL receptor transcription in HepG2 cells. Kapoor GS, Golden C, Atkins B, Mehta KD. J Lipid Res. 2003 Mar;44(3):584–93. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  84. Oncogenic Ha-Ras transformation modulates the transcription of the CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha gene via p42/44MAPK and transcription factor Sp3. Bakovic M, Waite K, Vance DE. J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 25;278(17):14753–61. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  85. Independent and cooperative activation of chromosomal c-fos promoter by STAT3. Yang E, Lerner L, Besser D, Darnell JE Jr. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 2;278(18):15794–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  86. Transcriptional activation of the NF-kappaB p65 subunit by mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1). Vermeulen L, De Wilde G, Van Damme P, Vanden Berghe W, Haegeman G. EMBO J. 2003 Mar 17;22(6):1313–24. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  87. Lysophosphatidic acid signals through mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal regulated kinase in ovarian theca cells expressing the LPA1/edg2-receptor: involvement of a nonclassical pathway? Budnik LT, Brunswig-Spickenheier B, Mukhopadhyay AK. Mol Endocrinol. 2003 Aug;17(8):1593–606. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  88. Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor mediates parathyroid hormone and prostaglandin F2 alpha-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in cultured transgenic murine osteoblasts. Ahmed I, Gesty-Palmer D, Drezner MK, Luttrell LM. Mol Endocrinol. 2003 Aug;17(8):1607–21. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  89. Regulation of PRAK subcellular location by p38 MAP kinases. New L, Jiang Y, Han J. Mol Biol Cell. 2003 Jun;14(6):2603–16. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  90. Mek2 is dispensable for mouse growth and development. Bélanger LF, Roy S, Tremblay M, Brott B, Steff AM, Mourad W, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Jul;23(14):4778–87. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  91. Ectopic B-Raf expression enhances extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in T cells and prevents antigen-presenting cell-induced anergy. Dillon TJ, Karpitski V, Wetzel SA, Parker DC, Shaw AS, Stork PJS. J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 19;278(38):35940–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  92. MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 participates in p38 MAPK-dependent and ERK-dependent functions in human neutrophils. Coxon PY, Rane MJ, Uriarte S, Powell DW, Singh S, Butt W, et al. Cell Signal. 2003 Nov;15(11):993–1001. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  93. MAPKAP kinase 2 phosphorylates tristetraprolin on in vivo sites including Ser178, a site required for 14-3-3 binding. Chrestensen CA, Schroeder MJ, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Pelo JW, Worthington MT, et al. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 12;279(11):10176–84. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  94. Oxidative stress inhibits osteoblastic differentiation of bone cells by ERK and NF-kappaB. Bai X chun, Lu D, Bai J, Zheng H, Ke Z yong, Li X ming, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Jan 30;314(1):197–207. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  95. Developmental regulation of the 5-HT7 serotonin receptor and transcription factor NGFI-A in the fetal guinea-pig limbic system: influence of GCs. Andrews MH, Kostaki A, Setiawan E, McCabe L, Owen D, Banjanin S, et al. J Physiol. 2004 Mar 16;555(Pt 3):659–70. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  96. Transformation potency of ErbB heterodimer signaling is determined by B-Raf kinase. Hatakeyama M, Yumoto N, Yu X, Shirouzu M, Yokoyama S, Konagaya A. Oncogene. 2004 Jun 24;23(29):5023–31. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  97. Oxidative neuronal injury. The dark side of ERK1/2. Chu CT, Levinthal DJ, Kulich SM, Chalovich EM, DeFranco DB. Eur J Biochem. 2004 Jun;271(11):2060–6. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  98. Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Weaver ICG, Cervoni N, Champagne FA, D’Alessio AC, Sharma S, Seckl JR, et al. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Aug;7(8):847–54. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  99. Copper and zinc inhibit Galphas function: a nucleotide-free state of Galphas induced by Cu2+ and Zn2+. Gao X, Du Z, Patel TB. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jan 28;280(4):2579–86. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  100. Activation of p90 Rsk1 is sufficient for differentiation of PC12 cells. Silverman E, Frödin M, Gammeltoft S, Maller JL. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Dec;24(24):10573–83. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  101. Direct and indirect interactions between calcineurin-NFAT and MEK1-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways regulate cardiac gene expression and cellular growth. Sanna B, Bueno OF, Dai YS, Wilkins BJ, Molkentin JD. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Feb;25(3):865–78. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  102. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor (R115777)-induced inhibition of STAT3(Tyr705) phosphorylation in human pancreatic cancer cell lines require extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Venkatasubbarao K, Choudary A, Freeman JW. Cancer Res. 2005 Apr 1;65(7):2861–71. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  103. Activation of adenylyl cyclase by endogenous G(s)-coupled receptors in human embryonic kidney 293 cells is attenuated by 5-HT(7) receptor expression. Andressen KW, Norum JH, Levy FO, Krobert KA. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;69(1):207–15. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  104. Maternal programming of steroid receptor expression and phenotype through DNA methylation in the rat. Szyf M, Weaver ICG, Champagne FA, Diorio J, Meaney MJ. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2005;26(3–4):139–62. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  105. Long-term depression activates transcription of immediate early transcription factor genes: involvement of serum response factor/Elk-1. Lindecke A, Korte M, Zagrebelsky M, Horejschi V, Elvers M, Widera D, et al. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jul;24(2):555–63. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  106. The PKA/CREB pathway is closely involved in VEGF expression in mouse macrophages. Jeon SH, Chae BC, Kim HA, Seo GY, Seo DW, Chun GT, et al. Mol Cells. 2007 Feb 28;23(1):23–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia