Glycerophospholipid biosynthetic pathway (WP3198)

Bos taurus

Glycerophospholipids or phosphoglycerides, in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids joined to glycerol; and sphingolipids, in which a single fatty acid is joined to a fatty amine, sphingosine, are glycerol-based phospholipids and the main component of biological membranes. The hydrophilic moieties in these amphipathic compounds may be as a simple as a single -OH at one end of the sterol ring system, or they may be more complex. Glycerophospholipds, as well as sphingolipids, contained polar or charged alcohols at their polar ends; some also contain phosphate groups. In glycerophospholipids, two fatty acids are ester-linked to glycerol at C-1 and C-2, and a highly polar or charged (and therefore hydrophilic) head group is attached to C-3 through a phosphodiester bond. All glycerophospholipds are derivatives of phosphatidic acid and are named for their polar head groups (e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine). All have a negative charge on the phosphate group at pH 7.0. The head-goup alcohol may also contribute one or more charges at pH near 7.0. The fatty acids in glycerophospholipds can be any of a wide variety. They are different in different species, in different tissues of the same species, and in different types of glycerophospholipids in the same cell or tissue. In general, glycerophospholipids contain a saturated fatty acid at C-1 and an unsaturated fatty acid at C-2, and, in general terms, the fatty acyl groups are generally 16 or 18 carbons long. Eukaryotic membranes contain significant amounts of two other types of glycerophospholipids: Plasmalogens and Alkylacylglycerophospholipids. Plasmalogens contain a hydrocarbon chain linked to glycerol C-1 via vinyl ether linkage whereas alkylacylglycerophospholipids the alkyl substituent at glycerol C-1 is attached via an ether linkage. About 20% of mammalian glycerophospholipids are plasmalogens, this percentage varies both from species to species and from tissue to tissue within a given organism. While plasmalogens comprise only about 0.8% of the phospholipids in human liver, they account for around 23% of those in human nervous tissue. The alkylacylglycerophospholipids are less abundant than the plasmalogens, e.g., about 59% of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids of human heart are plasmalogens, whereas only 3.6% are alkylacylglycerophospholipids. However, in bovine erythrocytes, 75% of the ethanolamine glycerophospholipids are of alkylacyl type.


Martina Summer-Kutmon , Egon Willighagen , Denise Slenter , and Eric Weitz


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Bos taurus



Pathway Ontology

glycerolipid metabolic pathway glycerolipid metabolic pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
1-Alkenyl-2-acylglycerophosphocholine(Plasmenylcholine) Metabolite chebi:17810
1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine(Plasmanylethanolamine) Metabolite chebi:36712
1-Alkyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate Metabolite chebi:17106
1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(Plasmanylcholine) Metabolite chebi:36702
1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate(Plasmanic acid) Metabolite chebi:37296
1-alkenyl-2-acylglycerophosphoethanolamine(Plasmenylethanolamine) Metabolite chebi:17476
1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol Metabolite pubchem.compound:17756737
NADPH + H+ Metabolite pubchem.compound:5884
NADP(Coenzyme II) Metabolite pubchem.compound:5886
Acyl-CoA Metabolite chebi:17984
CoA-SH Metabolite pubchem.compound:6816
Cytidine diphosphate ethanolamine(CDP-ethanolamine) Metabolite pubchem.compound:123727
CMP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6131
Cytochrome b Metabolite chebi:38551
CDP-choline Metabolite chebi:49086
CMP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6131
Choline Metabolite pubchem.compound:305
Ethanolamine Metabolite pubchem.compound:700
1-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate Metabolite chebi:17555
Acetyl-CoA Metabolite pubchem.compound:444493
CoA-SH Metabolite pubchem.compound:6816
1-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol Metabolite chebi:16291
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(Platelet Activating Factor, PAF) Metabolite chebi:36707
S-Adenosylmethionine(AdoMet) Metabolite pubchem.compound:34756
S-Adenosylhomocysteine(AdoHcy) Metabolite pubchem.compound:439155
Ethanolamine phosphate Metabolite pubchem.compound:1015
CMP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6131
CDP-ethanolamine Metabolite pubchem.compound:123727
CDP-choline Metabolite chebi:49086
CMP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6131
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(Lyso PAF) Metabolite chebi:36702
Acetyl-CoA Metabolite pubchem.compound:444493
CoA-SH Metabolite pubchem.compound:6816
1-Alkyl-sn-glycerol Metabolite chebi:15850
ATP Metabolite pubchem.compound:5957
ADP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6022
Choline Metabolite pubchem.compound:305
CDP-choline Metabolite pubchem.compound:25202509
triacyl-sn-glycerol(Triacylglycerol; TAG) Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGL03010000
Adenosine triphosphate(ATP) Metabolite pubchem.compound:5957
sn-glycerol-3-phosphate(glycerol-3-P) Metabolite pubchem.compound:7048686
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate(Phosphatidic acid; PA) Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGP10010000
NAD+(Coenzyme I) Metabolite pubchem.compound:5892
Fatty acyl-CoA Metabolite lipidmaps:LMFA07050000
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Metabolite pubchem.compound:668
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol(1,2-diacylglycerol; 1,2-DAG) Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGL02010000
Glycerol Metabolite pubchem.compound:753
NADH + H+ Metabolite pubchem.compound:439153
Phosphocholine(Choline-P) Metabolite pubchem.compound:1014
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(PC, Lecithin) Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGP01010000
CoA-SH Metabolite pubchem.compound:6816
2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate(Lysophosphatidic acid; LPA) Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGP10050000
Adenosine diphosphate(ADP) Metabolite pubchem.compound:6022
CTP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6176
ATP Metabolite pubchem.compound:5957
ADP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6022
Acyl-CoA Metabolite chebi:17984
Acyl coenzyme A(Acyl-CoA) Metabolite chebi:17984
Coenzyme A(CoA-SH) Metabolite pubchem.compound:6816
Acyl coenzyme A(Acyl-CoA) Metabolite chebi:17984
Coenzyme A(CoA-SH) Metabolite pubchem.compound:6816
Cytidine triphosphate(CTP) Metabolite pubchem.compound:6176
3 (S-adenosylhomocysteine) Metabolite pubchem.compound:439155
CMP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6131
1-Alkyldihydroxyacetone phosphate(Octanoyl DHAP) Metabolite pubchem.compound:53481029
1-Acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate(Acyl-DHAP) Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0011750
Coenzyme A(CoA-SH) Metabolite pubchem.compound:6816
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-sn-glycerol)(PG) Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGP04010000
Cardiolipin(DPG, CL) Metabolite chebi:28494
Inositol Metabolite pubchem.compound:892
Phosphatidylinositol2,4,5-triphosphate[PIP3(3',4',5')] Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGP09010001
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-myo-inositol)(PI) Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGP06010000
Cytidine monophosphate(CMP) Metabolite pubchem.compound:6131
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-cytidine-5'-diphosphate(CDP-DAG, CMP-PA) Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGP13010000
1D-myo-Inositol-1-P Metabolite pubchem.compound:5288642
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate[PIP2(4',5')] Metabolite chebi:18348
D-Glucose-6-P Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0003498
Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate(PIP) Metabolite chebi:58178
Glycerol-3-P Metabolite pubchem.compound:7048686
CMP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6131
ATP Metabolite pubchem.compound:5957
ADP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6022
ATP Metabolite pubchem.compound:5957
ADP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6022
ATP Metabolite pubchem.compound:5957
ADP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6022
CDP-DAG Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGP13010000
CMP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6131
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine(PS) Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGP03010000
Phosphorylethanolamine Metabolite pubchem.compound:1015
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine(PE) Metabolite lipidmaps:LMGP02010000
3 (S-adenosyl-methionine) Metabolite pubchem.compound:34756
Ethanolamine Metabolite pubchem.compound:700
Serine Metabolite pubchem.compound:5951
Cytidine diphosphate ethanolamine(CDP-ethanolamine) Metabolite pubchem.compound:123727
CMP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6131
ATP Metabolite pubchem.compound:5957
ADP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6022
CTP Metabolite pubchem.compound:6176
Ethanolamine Metabolite pubchem.compound:700
LPIN2 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000012060 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q92539
LPIN2 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000012060 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q92539
CEPT1 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020169 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q9Y6K0
CEPT1 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020169 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q9Y6K0
PLA2G2A Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005759 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:P14555
PLA2G2A Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005759 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:P14555
GPD1 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016296 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:P21695
GK Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000008124 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:P32189
LPIN1 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000007689 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q14693
CDS2 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006066 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:O95674
CHKB Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016050 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q9Y259
CHKB Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016050 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q9Y259
CHPT1 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000002490 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q8WUD6
PEMT Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016432 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q9UBM1
AGPS Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000009897 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:O00116
GNPAT Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010773 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:O15228
PGS1 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000000675 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q32NB8
PTPMT1 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000018479 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q8WUK0
CRLS1 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000000065 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q9UJA2
CDIPT Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000007954 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:O14735
PI4K2A Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000002010 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q9BTU6
PIP5K1A Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006099 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q99755
Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferaseEC Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000047808 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q86VF5
CHKB Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016050 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q9Y259
PCYT2 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000001868 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q99447
CEPT1 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020169 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:Q9Y6K0
PTDSS1 Protein ensembl:ENSBTAG00000013901 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = S:P48651


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