SIDS susceptibility pathways (WP3130)

Bos taurus

In this model, we provide an integrated view of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) at the level of implicated tissues, signaling networks and genetics. The purpose of this model is to serve as an overview of research in this field and recommend new candidates for more focused or genome wide analyses. SIDS is the sudden and unexpected death of an infant (less than 1 year of age), almost always during deep sleep, where no cause of death can be found by autopsy. Factors that mediate SIDS are likely to be both biological and behavioral, such as sleeping position, environment and stress during a critical phase of infant development (http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/Sudden_Infant_Death_Syndrome.cfm). While no clear diagnostic markers currently exist, several polymorphisms have been identified which are significantly over-represented in distinct SIDS ethnic population. The large majority of these polymorphisms exist in genes associated with neuronal signaling, cardiac contraction and inflammatory response. These and other lines of evidence suggest that SIDS has a strong autonomic nervous system component (PMID:12350301, PMID: 20124538). One of the neuronal nuclei most strongly implicated in SIDS has been the raphe nucleus of the brain stem. In this nuclei there are ultrastructural, cellular and molecular changes associated with SIDS relative to controls (PMID:19342987, PMID: 20124538). This region of the brain is responsible for the large majority of neuronal serotonin produced and is functionally important in the regulation of normal cardiopulmonary activity, sleep and thermoregulation (see associated references). Genes associated with serotonin synthesis and receptivity have some of the strongest genetic association with SIDS. Principle among these genes the serotonin biosynthetic enzyme TPH2, the serotonin transporter SLC6A4 and the serotonin receptor HTR1A. SLC6A4 exhibits decreased expression in the raphe nucleus of the medulla oblongata and polymorphisms specifically associated with SIDS (PMID:19342987). In 75% of infants with SIDS, there is decreased HTR1A expression relative to controls along with an increase in the number of raphe serotonin neurons (PMID:19342987). Over-expression of the mouse orthologue of the HTR1A gene in the juvenile mouse medulla produces an analogous phenotype to SIDS with death due to bradycardia and hypothermia (PMID:18599790). These genes as well as those involved in serotonin synthesis are predicted to be transcriptionally regulated by a common factor, FEV (human orthologue of PET-1). PET-1 knock-out results in up to a 90% loss of serotonin neurons (PMID:12546819), while polymorphisms in FEV are over-represented in African American infants with SIDS. In addition to FEV, other transcription factors implicated in the regulation of these genes (Putative transcriptional regulators (TRs)) and FEV are also listed (see associated references). In addition to serotonin, vasopressin signaling and its regulation by serotonin appear to be important in a common pathway of cardiopulmonary regulation (PMID:2058745). A protein that associates with vasopressin signaling, named pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (ADCYAP1), results in a SIDS like phenotype, characterized by a high increase in spontaneous neonatal death, exacerbated by hypothermia and hypoxia (PMID:14608012), when disrupted in mice. Protein for this gene is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS), including autonomic control centers (PMID:12389210). ADCYAP1 and HTR1A are both predicted to be transcriptionally regulated by REST promoter binding. Regulation of G-protein coupled signaling pathways is illustrated for these genes, however, it is not clear whether ADCYAP1 acts directly upon raphe serotonin neurons. Another potentially important class of receptors in SIDS is nicotine. Receptors for nicotine are expressed in serotonin neurons of the raphe throughout development (PMID:18986852). Application of nicotine or cigarette smoke is sufficient to inhibit electrical activity of raphe serotonin neurons (PMID:17515803) and chronic nicotine infusion in rats decreases expression of SLC6A4 (PMID:18778441). Furthermore, nicotine exposure reduces both HTR1A and HTR2A immunoreactivity in several nuclei of the brainstem (PMID:17451658). In addition to CNS abnormalities, several studies have identified a critical link between cardiac arrhythmia (long QT syndrome) and SIDS (PMID:18928334). A number of genetic association studies identified functionally modifying mutations in critical cardiac channels in as many as 10% of all SIDS cases (PMID:18928334). These mutations have been predicted to predispose infants for long QT syndrome and sudden death. The highest proportion of SIDS associated mutations (both inherited and sporadic) is found in the sodium channel gene SCN5A. Examination of putative transcriptional regulators for these genes, highlights a diverse set of factors as well as a relatively common one (SP1). Finally, several miscellaneous mutations have been identified in genes associated with inflammatory response and thermoregulation. Infection is considered a significant risk factor for SIDS (PMID:19114412). For inflammatory associated genes, such as TNF alpha, interleukin 10 and complement component 4, many of these mutations are only significant in the presence of infection and SIDS. In addition to these mutations, cerebrospinal fluid levels of IL6 are increased in SIDS cases as well as IL6R levels in the arcuate nucleus of the brain, another major site of serotonin synthesis (PMID:19396608). Genes such as ILR6 and ADCYAP1 are also associated with autoimmune disorders, thus SIDS may also be associated with autoinflammation of autonomic centers in the brain. Regulation of thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue has been proposed be an important component of SIDS, given that SIDS incidence is highest in the winter time and that animal models of SIDS demonstrate variation in body temperature. Interestingly, activation of raphe HTR1A decreases both shivering and peripheral vasoconstriction in piglets (18094064). Although a putative significant polymorphism was identified in the thermoregulator gene HSP60, this only occurred in one SIDS case. It is important to note that in the large majority of all these studies, sleeping position and smoking were among the most significant risk factors for SIDS. In loving memory of Milo Salomonis (http://www.milosalomonis.org).

Authors

Martina Summer-Kutmon , Egon Willighagen , and Eric Weitz

Activity

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Organisms

Bos taurus

Communities

Annotations

Pathway Ontology

serotonin signaling pathway

Cell Type Ontology

cardiac muscle cell raphe nuclei neuron

Disease Ontology

sudden infant death syndrome

Participants

Label Type Compact Identifier Comment
5-HT Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000259
L-Tryptophan Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000929
Nicotine Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001934
Fluoxetine Metabolite cas:54910-89-3
5-HTP Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000472
5-HIAA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000763
5-HT Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000259
5-HT Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000259
GABA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000112
5-HT Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000259
Glutamate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0004135
Dopamine Metabolite cas:62-31-7
Phenylalanine Metabolite cas:63-91-2
L-DOPA Metabolite cas:59-92-7
Acetylcholine Metabolite cas:51-84-3
Choline Metabolite cas:62-49-7
Tyrosine Metabolite cas:60-18-4
Glutamate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0004135
Glutamate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0004135
SCN5A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000009155 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6331
NK1R GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000015575 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000115353
ADCYAP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020650 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:116
ALDOA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000012927 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000149925
IL10 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006685 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3586
TPH1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005343 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7166
CREB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005474 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000118260
SSTR2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000017136 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000180616
MAOA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016206 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:4128
GR-A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019472 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000113580
SP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003021 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6667
HES1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000000569 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3280
ACADM GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000024240 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:34
C4B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006864 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:721
MGC157163 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000011789 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5978
5HTR1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000040439 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3350
CC2D1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006068 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:54862
NFKB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020270 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000109320
CREB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005474 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000118260
TPH1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005343 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7166
CTCF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000013757 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:10664
NKX3-1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000001221 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:4824
HADHA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000015038 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3030
RYR2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000022886 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6262
CHRNB4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003132 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1143
TNF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000025471 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7124
EP300 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016198 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2033
MEF2C GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020701 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000081189
MGC157163 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000011789 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5978
NGF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000007446 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000134259
bta-mir-16a GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000036389 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:406950
PLP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006977 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000123560
C4A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006864 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:720
bta-mir-130a GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000030122 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000208009
RUNX3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019800 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000020633
NEUROD1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000001755 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000162992
HIF1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020935 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000100644
DLX2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005741 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000115844
JUN GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004037 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000177606
GATA2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019707 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2624
bta-mir-210 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000046437 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000199038
CREBBP GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000026403 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000005339
KCNH2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004078 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3757
DDC GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020869 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1644
SP3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000000176 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000172845
CAV3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000022699 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:859
CXCL8 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019716 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3576
CAV3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000022699 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:859
AVP GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000008027 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:551
ADCYAP1R1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020247 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:117
PPARGC1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000017024 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:10891
THRB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000017802 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000151090
PPARGC1B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000012943 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:133522
MGC157163 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000011789 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000084093
LMX1B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010228 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:4010
HES1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000000569 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000114315
CHRNA4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000017198 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1137
KCNH2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004078 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3757
NFYA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000009905 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:4800
KCNQ1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010986 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3784
ASCL1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016227 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:429
ESR2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004498 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2100
MGC157163 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000011789 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000084093
BHLHE40 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000009863 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000134107
RORA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000015904 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6095
HTR2A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000013498 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3356
SP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003021 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000185591
ADCYAP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020650 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:116
VIPR2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000037649 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7434
EN1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000021494 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2019
TCF3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000008695 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000071564
IL6 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000014921 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3569
YBX1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000017368 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:4904
GATA3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000017243 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2625
VIPR1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006567 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7433
SP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003021 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000185591
TPH2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020792 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:121278
SLC6A4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019349 Contains an alternative promoter in the first and possibly second intron.
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6532
TP73 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005812 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000078900
CDCA7L GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004976 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:55536
HSPD1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000012586 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3329
POU3F2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000024773 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5454
FEV GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020191 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:54738
SSTR1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006582 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000139874
ECE1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000002977 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1889
POU3F2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000024773 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5454
GNB3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016043 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2784
MAOA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016206 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:4128
PKNOX1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000014153 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000160199
AR GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000022255 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:367
DDC GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020869 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1644
PBX1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000013801 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000185630
FOXM1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000015875 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2305
IL6R GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000018474 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3570
CREB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005474 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1385
TPH2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020792 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:121278
5HTR1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000040439 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3350
KCNQ1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010986 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3784
GR-A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019472 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2908
PHOX2A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019168 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:401
RET GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000000570 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5979
SP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003021 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6667
HES5 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000002483 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:388585
RYR2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000022886 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6262
TLX3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010003 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:30012
NFKB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020270 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:4790
NKX2-2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010277 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:4821
EGR1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010069 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000120738
PHOX2B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000044166 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:8929
MGC157163 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000011789 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5978
FEV GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020191 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:54738
SP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003021 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000185591
HIF1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020935 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000100644
CTNNB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016420 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000168036
SOX2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000011598 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000181449
NANOG GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020916 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000111704
POU5F1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000001873 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000204531
BDNF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000008134 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000176697
NTRK2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010647 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:4915
GABRA1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000030286 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2554
CHRM2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000014674 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1129
GJA1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000001835 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000152661
SNTA1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000000512 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6640
KCNJ8 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000002551 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3764
GJA1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000001835 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000152661
PRKAR2B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000014958 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5577
YWHAE GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005664 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7531
YWHAZ GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000000236 PMID: 9861170 PMID: 1317796
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7534
PRKAR1B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000046142 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5575
PRKAR2A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000014205 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5576
YWHAQ GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000002108 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:10971
YWHAG GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004077 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7532
PRKAR1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000008621 KAP0 HUMAN
HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5573
YWHAH GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000011631 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7533
YWHAB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016846 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7529
PRKACB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000011953 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5567
PRKACA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006642 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5566
SLC9A3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004629 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6550
CASP3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000015874 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000164305
FMO3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020597 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000007933
G6PC GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010184 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000131482
GCK GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000032288 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000106633
GPD1L GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000009826 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000152642
GRIN1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000047202 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000176884
HADHB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010083 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000138029
HTR3A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010791 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000166736
SCN3B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016768 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000166257
SCN4B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000039340 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000177098
SST GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000017312 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000157005
AQP4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019037 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000171885
CPT1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000021999 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000110090
IL1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010349 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000115008
IL1B GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000001321 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000125538
IL1RN GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019665 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000136689
IL13 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000015953 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000169194
TSPYL1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010885 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000189241
VEGFA GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000047561 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000112715
SCN5A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000009155 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6331
CHAT GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016814 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000070748
PAH GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000012794 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5053
TH GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000026768 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000180176
DDC GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020869 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1644
NOS1AP GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010158 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000198929
MAP-2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000018130 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000078018
TAC1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000015356 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000006128
SLC1A3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000018245 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000079215
SLC25A4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000013208 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000151729
SNAP25 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000008323 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000132639
SST GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000017312 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000157005
TAC1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000015356 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000006128
HTR3A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010791 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000166736
TH GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000026768 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000180176
CHAT GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016814 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000070748
SLC9A3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004629 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6550
BDNF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000008134 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000176697
NTRK2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000010647 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:4915
AQP4 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019037 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000171885
GRIN1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000047202 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000176884
SP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003021 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000185591
NFKB2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006017 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000077150
JUN GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004037 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000177606
HDAC9 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003808 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000048052
MYB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000012074 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000118513
SNTA1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000000512 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6640
GPD1L GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000009826 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000152642
SP1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003021 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000185591
JUN GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004037 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000177606
GR-A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000019472 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000113580
MGC157163 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000011789 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000084093
JUN GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004037 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000177606
CREB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005474 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000118260
POU2F2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000008556 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000028277
CREM GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000016060 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000095794
MGC157163 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000011789 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000084093
NFKB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020270 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000109320
CHRNB2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000007517 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1141
CHRNA7 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000015775 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000175344
HDAC1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000012698 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000116478
MBD1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003801 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000141644
MECP2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000047855 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000169057
NFKB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020270 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000109320
CREBBP GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000026403 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000005339
GABRA1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000030286 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2554
CREB1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005474 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000118260
VAMP2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003891 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000220205
TPPP GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000047116 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000171368
ATP1A3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000018635 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000105409
GAPDH GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000018554 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000111640
HSP90B1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000003362 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000166598
TF GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000007273 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000091513
SPTBN1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000006995 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000115306
YWHAG GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004077 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000170027
HIF1A GeneProduct ensembl:ENSBTAG00000020935 HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000100644

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