Gastric acid production (WP2596)

Homo sapiens

Gastric acid forms a protective buffer against pathogenic agents. It is also essential in the digestion of the food. The stomach wall is protected to the high acidity by a mucus layer and bicarbonate ions.


Andra Waagmeester , Alex Pico , Egon Willighagen , and Eric Weitz


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Homo sapiens



Cell Type Ontology

epithelial cell epithelial cell of stomach peptic cell stomach enteroendocrine cell parietal cell foveolar cell of stomach type ECL enteroendocrine cell gastrin secreting cell

Pathway Ontology

regulatory pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
Histamine Metabolite chemspider:753
Bicarbonate ions Metabolite chemspider:749
Potassium chloride Metabolite chemspider:4707
Sodium chloride Metabolite chemspider:5044
Acetylcholine Metabolite chemspider:182
Hydrochloric acid Metabolite chemspider:307
MUC6 GeneProduct ncbigene:4588
Pepsin B GeneProduct eccode:
PGA3 GeneProduct ncbigene:643834
Pepsinogen GeneProduct uniprot:O95576
Secretin GeneProduct ncbigene:6343
Gastrin GeneProduct uniprot:P01350
CCK GeneProduct ncbigene:885
VIP GeneProduct ncbigene:7432
Gastric intrinsic factor GeneProduct uniprot:P27352
GRP GeneProduct ncbigene:2922
Pepsin C GeneProduct eccode:
PGA4 GeneProduct ncbigene:643847
Pepsinogen GeneProduct uniprot:O95576
PGA5 GeneProduct ncbigene:5222
PGC GeneProduct ncbigene:5225
Gastrin GeneProduct uniprot:P01350


  1. CCK-B (gastrin) receptor regulates gastric histamine release and acid secretion. Sandvik AK, Waldum HL. Am J Physiol. 1991 Jun;260(6 Pt 1):G925-8. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Mucus and bicarbonate secretion in the stomach and their possible role in mucosal protection. Allen A, Garner A. Gut. 1980 Mar;21(3):249–62. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Demonstration of a pH gradient across mucus adherent to rabbit gastric mucosa: evidence for a “mucus-bicarbonate” barrier. Williams SE, Turnberg LA. Gut. 1981 Feb;22(2):94–6. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Human gastric mucin. Identification of a unique species by expression cloning. Toribara NW, Roberton AM, Ho SB, Kuo WL, Gum E, Hicks JW, et al. J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 15;268(8):5879–85. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia