Cadmium and glutathione (WP2579)

Arabidopsis thaliana

Picture from Research article: "Jozefczak M., E. Keunen, H. Schat, M. Bliek, L.E. Hernández, R. Carleer, T. Remans, S. Bohler, J. Vangronsveld, and A. Cuypers, Differential response of Arabidopsis leaves and roots to cadmium: Glutathione-related chelating capacity vs antioxidant capacity. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 2014. 83: p. 1-9." Caption: Fig. 8. Schematic overview of four studied processes, all activated under Cd stress: GSH biosynthesis, Cd chelation, SOD regulation and the AsA-GSH cycle. There are several indications that the GSH state, including both total GSH content and GSH:GSSG ratio, is involved in the stimulation of these pathways. Data of roots and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to 5 or 10 mM CdSO4 for different time periods (2, 24, 48, 72 h) are visualised (significant upregulation, green box; significant downregulation, red box; ANOVA). Data from in-gel activities are presented by and for increased and decreased SOD activity according to visual quantification. Abbreviations: cadmium (Cd), glutathione (GSH), GSH disulfide (GSSG), gglutamylcysteine (g-EC), g-EC synthetase (GSH1), GSH synthetase (GSH2), phytochelatin (PC), PC synthase (PCS1), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbate (AsA), AsA peroxidase (APX1, APX2), monodehydroascorbate (MDHA), MDHA reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate (DHA), DHA reductase (DHAR), GSH reductase (GR), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH, NADPþ), superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms: manganese (MSD1, MnSOD), iron (FSD1, FeSOD) and copper/zinc (CSD1, CSD2, CuZnSOD); microRNA398 (miR398a, miR398b/c), copper chaperones (CCH, ATX1, CCS).


Marijke Jozefczak , Egon Willighagen , Alex Pico , and Martina Summer-Kutmon


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Arabidopsis thaliana



Pathway Ontology

cellular detoxification pathway


Label Type Compact Identifier Comment
glycine Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000123
GSH Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000125
Cd Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0003638
glutamate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000148
PC Metabolite chebi:60836
gamma-EC Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001049
cysteine Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000574
AsA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000044
GSH Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000125
GSH Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000125
MDHA Metabolite chebi:16504
GSSG Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0003337
GSH Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000125
NADPH Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000221
NADP+ Metabolite chebi:18009
H2O2 Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0003125
2 H2O Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0002111
GSSG Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0003337
GSH Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000125
CCH GeneProduct ensembl:AT3G56240
ATX1 GeneProduct ensembl:AT1G66240
APX1 GeneProduct ensembl:AT1G07890
GSH1 GeneProduct ncbigene:828409
GSH2 GeneProduct ensembl:AT5G27380
APX2 GeneProduct ensembl:AT3G09640
GR1 GeneProduct ensembl:AT3G24170
MSD1 GeneProduct ncbigene:820263
FSD1 GeneProduct ensembl:AT4G25100
CCS GeneProduct ensembl:AT1G12520
CSD1 GeneProduct ensembl:AT1G08830
CSD2 GeneProduct ensembl:AT2G28190
miR398a GeneProduct ensembl:AT2G03445
miR398b/c GeneProduct ensembl:AT5G14545
MDHAR Protein go:GO:0016656
PCS1 Protein uniprot:Q9S7Z3
DHAR Protein go:GO:0045174


  1. Differential response of Arabidopsis leaves and roots to cadmium: glutathione-related chelating capacity vs antioxidant capacity. Jozefczak M, Keunen E, Schat H, Bliek M, Hernández LE, Carleer R, et al. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2014 Oct;83:1–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia