DON mycotoxin biosynthesis (WP2258)

Gibberella zeae

Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum) is a fungal pathogen of major staple food crops including wheat, maize and rice. The fungus produces a range of mycotoxins including the dexoynivalenol (DON) trichothecene mycotoxin. DON contamination of food crops is a major thread to human and animal health. In wheat, but not in maize, DON was proven to be a virulence factor. Also see [ Wikipedia article on Vomitoxin].


Martin Urban , Christine Chichester , Egon Willighagen , and Martina Summer-Kutmon


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Gibberella zeae



Pathway Ontology

deoxynivalenol biosynthetic pathway disease pathway


Label Type Compact Identifier Comment
Trichodiene Metabolite chebi:15861
Farnesyl pyrophosphate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000961
Trichotriol Metabolite chemspider:10204911
Isotrichodermol Metabolite chemspider:165671
Isotrichodermin Metabolite chemspider:110985
Calonectrin Metabolite chemspider:9648393
Triacetoxyscirpenol Metabolite chemspider:65844
8-Hydroxycalonectrin Metabolite chemspider:469583
7,8-Dihydroxycalonectrin Metabolite chemspider:484624
3,15-Diacetyldeoxynivalenol Metabolite chemspider:113028
Nivalenol Metabolite chemspider:29515
Tri8 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_03532
Tri7 B GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_03533
Tri101 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_07896 TRI101 encodes trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase (a self-protection factor)
Tri5 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_03537
Tri11 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_03540
Tri3 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_03534 trichothecene 15-O-acetyltransferase
Tri1 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_00071
Tri13 B GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_10629
Tri4 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_03535 cytochrome P450
Tri8 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_03532
Tri7 A GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_02115
Tri13 A GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_03860
Tri6 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_16251 trichothecene biosynthesis positive Zinc finger transcription factor
Tri10 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_03538 regulatory prtoein with unknown function
Tri12 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_12013 Membrane-bound efflux pump
Tri12 GeneProduct ensembl:FGSG_11025 Zinc finger transcription factor


  1. Reduced virulence of Gibberella zeae caused by disruption of a trichothecene toxin biosynthetic gene. Proctor RH, Hohn TM, McCormick SP. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 1995;8(4):593–601. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Restoration of wild-type virulence to Tri5 disruption mutants of Gibberella zeae via gene reversion and mutant complementation. Proctor RH, Hohn TM, McCormick SP. Microbiology (Reading). 1997 Aug;143 ( Pt 8):2583–91. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Analysis of aberrant virulence of Gibberella zeae following transformation-mediated complementation of a trichothecene-deficient (Tri5) mutant. Desjardins AE, Bai GH, Plattner RD, Proctor RH. Microbiology (Reading). 2000 Aug;146 ( Pt 8):2059–68. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia