Amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid (WP1577)

Sus scrofa

Despite being the first conjugation reaction demonstrated in humans, amino acid conjugation as a route of metabolism of xenobiotic carboxylic acids is not well characterised. This is principally due to the small number and limited structural diversity of xenobiotic substrates for amino acid conjugation. Unlike CYP and uridine 5′-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase, which are localised in the endoplasmic reticulum, the enzymes of amino acid conjugation reside in mitochondria. Unique among drug metabolism pathways, amino acid conjugation involves initial formation of a xenobiotic acyl-CoA thioester that is then conjugated principally with glycine in humans. Exogenously administered benzoic acid is metabolised to hippuric acid with a conjugation reaction in humans (as discovered in the first metabolism study in humans).


Kristina Hanspers , Martina Summer-Kutmon , and Alex Pico


last edited

Discuss this pathway

Check for ongoing discussions or start your own.

Cited In

Are you planning to include this pathway in your next publication? See How to Cite and add a link here to your paper once it's online.


Sus scrofa



Pathway Ontology

amino acid metabolic pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
hippuric acid Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000714
Coenzyme A Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001423
Phosphate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001429
Phosphate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001429
Acetyl CoA Metabolite cas:72-89-9
glycine Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000123
ATP Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000538
Benzoic acid Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001870
Benzoyl-CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0002252
AMP Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000045
Benzoic acid AMP ester Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001870
GLYAT GeneProduct ensembl:ENSSSCG00000013149
GLYATL2 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSSSCG00000013148