Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (WP157)

Mus musculus

Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the ATP and NADH. Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, glucogenic amino acids, and fatty acids. Description adapted from [ Wikipedia].


Kdahlquist , Meredith Braymer , Martijn Van Iersel , Adrien Defay , Thomas Kelder , Christine Chichester , Egon Willighagen , Liisa Arike , Alex Pico , Gharding , Martina Summer-Kutmon , and Eric Weitz


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Mus musculus



Pathway Ontology

glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
Malate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000744
1,3BP-Glycerate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001270
Pyruvate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000243
Glucose Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000122
Fructose 6P Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000124
Pyruvate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000243
Oxaloacetate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000223
P-enolpyruvate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000263
Lactate Metabolite chebi:16651
3P-Glycerate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000807
Oxaloacetate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000223
Acetyl-CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001206
2P-Glycerate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000362
Dihydroxyacetone-P Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001473
Aspartate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000191
Fructose-1,6BP Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001058
Malate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000744
Glucose-6P Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001401
Aspartate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000191
Glucose Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000122
Glyceraldehyde 3P Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001112
Dlat GeneProduct ncbigene:235339
Eno3 GeneProduct ncbigene:13808
Slc2a4 GeneProduct ncbigene:20528
Tpi1 GeneProduct ncbigene:21991
Slc2a2 GeneProduct ncbigene:20526
Eno1 GeneProduct ncbigene:13806
Slc2a5 GeneProduct ncbigene:56485
Ldhal6b GeneProduct ncbigene:106557
Pgk1 GeneProduct ncbigene:18655
Gpi1 GeneProduct ncbigene:14751
Gck GeneProduct ncbigene:103988 Gck is mainly active in liver
Dld GeneProduct ncbigene:13382
Pdha2 GeneProduct ncbigene:18598
Got2 GeneProduct ncbigene:14719
Fbp2 GeneProduct ncbigene:14120
Gm13882 GeneProduct ncbigene:100043349
Slc2a3 GeneProduct ncbigene:20527
Eno2 GeneProduct ncbigene:13807
G6pc GeneProduct ncbigene:14377 Not present in brain and muscle, so those organs can not produce their own glucose in the gluconeogenesis pathway
Pgam2 GeneProduct ncbigene:56012
Pcx GeneProduct ncbigene:18563
Pck1 GeneProduct ncbigene:18534
Ldhb GeneProduct ncbigene:16832
Hk3 GeneProduct ncbigene:212032
Ldhc GeneProduct ncbigene:16833
Pdhb GeneProduct ncbigene:68263
Pdhx GeneProduct ncbigene:27402
Gapdh GeneProduct ncbigene:14433
Pkm2 GeneProduct ncbigene:18746
MPC1 GeneProduct ncbigene:55951
Pkm2 GeneProduct ncbigene:18746
Pfkm GeneProduct ncbigene:18642
Gapdhs GeneProduct ncbigene:14447
Pdha1 GeneProduct ncbigene:18597
Pklr GeneProduct ncbigene:18770
Aldoa GeneProduct ncbigene:11674
Pgk2 GeneProduct ncbigene:18663
Mdh2 GeneProduct ncbigene:17448
Pfkp GeneProduct ncbigene:56421
Slc2a1 GeneProduct ncbigene:20525
Got1 GeneProduct ncbigene:14718
Hk1 GeneProduct ncbigene:15275
Aldoc GeneProduct ncbigene:11676
Aldob GeneProduct ncbigene:230163
Pgam1 GeneProduct ncbigene:18648
Hk2 GeneProduct ncbigene:15277
Fbp1 GeneProduct ncbigene:14121
Pfkl GeneProduct ncbigene:18641
Mdh1 GeneProduct ncbigene:17449
Ldha GeneProduct ncbigene:16828
MPC2 GeneProduct ncbigene:70456


  1. A mitochondrial pyruvate carrier required for pyruvate uptake in yeast, Drosophila, and humans. Bricker DK, Taylor EB, Schell JC, Orsak T, Boutron A, Chen YC, et al. Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):96–100. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia