Glutathione metabolism (WP100)

Homo sapiens

Glutathione is a major antioxidant in all forms of life and an indicator of cellular oxidative stress. Reduction by the GSR enzyme utilizes NADPH as an electron donor. In a reduced form, glutathione is metabolized in multiple ways leading to the biosynthesis of mercapturonate, glutamate, glycine, cysteine and other amino acids. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the [ CPTAC Assay Portal]


Thomas Kelder , Alex Pico , Andra Waagmeester , Egon Willighagen , Denise Slenter , and Kristina Hanspers


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Homo sapiens



Pathway Ontology

glutathione metabolic pathway


Label Type Compact URI Comment
g-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteine Metabolite kegg.compound:C00669
L-Cysteine Metabolite kegg.compound:C00097
Cysteinyl-glycine Metabolite kegg.compound:C01419
Glycine Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000123
5-Oxoproline Metabolite kegg.compound:C01879
Glycine Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000123
L-Glutamate Metabolite kegg.compound:C00025
NADPH Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000221
L-Glutamate Metabolite kegg.compound:C00025
(5-L-Glutamyl)-L-amino acid Metabolite kegg.compound:C03740
R-S-Mercapturonate Metabolite chebi:47911
L-Amino acid Metabolite kegg.compound:C00151
Bis-g-glutamylcystine Metabolite kegg.compound:C03646
R-S-Alanine Metabolite kegg.compound:C05726
Glutamylcysteinyl-glycylspermidine Metabolite pubchem.compound:440772
NADP+ Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000217
Glutathione (reduced) Metabolite kegg.compound:C00051
R-S-Alanylglycine Metabolite kegg.compound:C05729
Acetyl-CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001206
R-S-Glutathione Metabolite kegg.compound:C02320
Oxidized glutathione Metabolite kegg.compound:C00127 GeneProduct eccode:
GGTLA1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2687 GeneProduct eccode:
GGT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2678 (5-L-Glutamyl)-L-amino acid
GGTLA1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2687 GeneProduct eccode:
GPX1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2876
GSR GeneProduct ncbigene:2936
ANPEP GeneProduct ncbigene:290 GeneProduct eccode: GeneProduct eccode: GeneProduct eccode:
GSTA1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2938
GSTM2 GeneProduct ncbigene:2946
GPX2 GeneProduct ncbigene:2877
GSS GeneProduct ncbigene:2937
GCLC GeneProduct ncbigene:2729
GSTA5 GeneProduct ncbigene:221357 GeneProduct eccode:
IDH1 GeneProduct ncbigene:3417 GeneProduct eccode:
GGT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2678 GeneProduct eccode:
GCLM GeneProduct ncbigene:2730 GeneProduct eccode:
GGT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2678
GPX3 GeneProduct ncbigene:2878 GeneProduct eccode:
GSTT2 GeneProduct ncbigene:2953 GeneProduct eccode: GeneProduct eccode: GeneProduct eccode:
ANPEP GeneProduct ncbigene:290
OPLAH GeneProduct ncbigene:26873 GeneProduct eccode: GeneProduct eccode:
GGTLA1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2687
GSTT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2952
GPX4 GeneProduct ncbigene:2879 GeneProduct eccode:
G6PD GeneProduct ncbigene:2539 GeneProduct eccode:
GSTM1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2944


  1. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489–92. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia