Prostaglandin synthesis and regulation (Homo sapiens)

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11prolactinreleasePG SynthasesCortisoneInactive MetabolitesCytoplasmCYP11A1ANXA5EDNRBPGF2aPTGER4S100A10S100A6CalciumPTGFRPTGISPTGER2PTGER1HPGDPTGS2PGF2aArachidonic AcidPRLANXA8PLA2G4ACortisolANXA4PGE2SCGB1A1PTGDSEDN1PGI2ANXA3HSD11B1Gq signalingpathwayANXA1PTGDRPTGIRCalciumHSD11B2PTGS1Cell MembranePhospholipidsTXA2ANXA6EDNRACortisolTBXAS1Prostaglandin H2ProgesteronePTGER3ANXA2ABCC44PGD2HPGDS10MITF9PTGESPPARG7PPARGC1A7PPARGC1B7SOX93Regulation of PG synthasesAKR1B8AKR1C31CBR1AKR1C12AKR1C26AKR1C1220-dihydroprogesteronePGI2PGE2PGD2TBXA2RTXA2PTGFRN5


A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are mediators and have a variety of strong physiological effects, such as regulating the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue.[1] Prostaglandins are not hormones, but autocrine or paracrine, which are locally acting messenger molecules. They differ from hormones in that they are not produced at a discrete site but in many places throughout the human body. Also, their target cells are present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion (of which there are many).

The prostaglandins, together with the thromboxanes and prostacyclins, form the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives, a subclass of eicosanoids. Adapted from Gross, G et al. 2000, Society for Gynecologic Investigation; 7:88-95.

Description adapted from Wikipedia.

Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the CPTAC Assay Portal

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Ontology Terms



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  1. Matsuura K, Shiraishi H, Hara A, Sato K, Deyashiki Y, Ninomiya M, Sakai S; ''Identification of a principal mRNA species for human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoform (AKR1C3) that exhibits high prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity.''; J Biochem, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Seo KS, Naidansuren P, Kim SH, Yun SJ, Park JJ, Sim BW, Park CW, Nanjidsuren T, Kang MH, Seo H, Ka H, Kim NH, Hwang SY, Yoon JT, Yamanouchi K, Min KS; ''Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1) gene in porcine ovary and uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.''; Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Wilhelm D, Hiramatsu R, Mizusaki H, Widjaja L, Combes AN, Kanai Y, Koopman P; ''SOX9 regulates prostaglandin D synthase gene transcription in vivo to ensure testis development.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P; ''The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Stipp CS, Orlicky D, Hemler ME; ''FPRP, a major, highly stoichiometric, highly specific CD81- and CD9-associated protein.''; J Biol Chem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Wang S, Yang Q, Fung KM, Lin HK; ''AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 mediated prostaglandin D2 metabolism augments the PI3K/Akt proliferative signaling pathway in human prostate cancer cells.''; Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Bogacka I, Bogacki M, Gaglewska M, Kurzynska A, Wasielak M; ''In vitro effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands on prostaglandin E2 synthesis and secretion by porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.''; J Physiol Pharmacol, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Bresson E, Boucher-Kovalik S, Chapdelaine P, Madore E, Harvey N, Laberge PY, Leboeuf M, Fortier MA; ''The human aldose reductase AKR1B1 qualifies as the primary prostaglandin F synthase in the endometrium.''; J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Morii E, Oboki K; ''MITF is necessary for generation of prostaglandin D2 in mouse mast cells.''; J Biol Chem, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Jowsey IR, Thomson AM, Flanagan JU, Murdock PR, Moore GB, Meyer DJ, Murphy GJ, Smith SA, Hayes JD; ''Mammalian class Sigma glutathione S-transferases: catalytic properties and tissue-specific expression of human and rat GSH-dependent prostaglandin D2 synthases.''; Biochem J, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. Gross G, Imamura T, Muglia LJ; ''Gene knockout mice in the study of parturition.''; J Soc Gynecol Investig, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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117172view09:55, 18 May 2021EweitzModified title
113596view09:49, 4 November 2020DeSlUpdating ID for cortisol to avoid duplicate mappings (2nd time)
112965view22:28, 23 October 2020AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'classic metabolic pathway' added !
112954view14:48, 22 October 2020DeSlOntology Term : 'PW:0000002' removed !
112953view14:47, 22 October 2020DeSlConnected unconnected line
112952view14:46, 22 October 2020DeSlUpdated ID for Cortisol
111160view09:20, 21 July 2020EgonwMade another pathway clickable
106529view23:50, 5 September 2019KhanspersModified description
106181view12:07, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
105794view22:44, 15 August 2019KhanspersModified description
102309view21:07, 17 December 2018KhanspersModified description
102308view21:05, 17 December 2018Khanspersremoved GenMAPP comment
98180view10:11, 2 August 2018EgonwFixed a data source for a KEGG Compound.
96263view19:43, 2 March 2018EgonwFixed the data source to match the ID.
95961view12:20, 9 February 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'PW:0000002' removed !
95960view12:20, 9 February 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'prostaglandin biosynthetic pathway' added !
95959view12:19, 9 February 2018DeSlConnected unocnnected lines.
95926view07:48, 6 February 2018EgonwFixed the data source.
95925view19:39, 5 February 2018VjlynchAdded PTGFRN
95924view19:10, 5 February 2018VjlynchAdded genes involved in prostaglandin synthesis and interconversion
95921view18:01, 5 February 2018Vjlynch
95918view22:27, 4 February 2018Vjlynch
95917view18:41, 4 February 2018VjlynchUpdated genes that regualte PG synthase expression and PG export
88906view08:47, 17 August 2016MirellaKalafatiOntology Term : 'classic metabolic pathway' added !
86077view09:43, 29 June 2016MirellaKalafatiOntology Term : 'PW:0000002' removed !
86076view09:43, 29 June 2016MirellaKalafatiOntology Term : 'classic metabolic pathway' added !
86075view09:41, 29 June 2016MirellaKalafatiOntology Term : 'classic metabolic pathway' added !
85088view23:07, 12 April 2016EgonwAdded a few metabolite identifiers.
72088view21:23, 24 October 2013Mkutmonadded datasource for "Gq signaling pathway"
68986view17:43, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
45273view18:52, 7 October 2011KhanspersModified description
45272view18:51, 7 October 2011KhanspersModified description
45268view18:48, 7 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'prostaglandin metabolic pathway' added !
41161view23:41, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
38857view18:08, 24 September 2010Khanspers
38769view23:41, 23 September 2010KhanspersChanged graphic and linked to pathway
37348view17:54, 28 May 2010KhanspersLit ref
34440view18:17, 10 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
33624view10:03, 1 December 2009MaintBotRemoved group label
20887view11:30, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Prostaglandin synthesis regulation]] moved to [[Pathway:WP98]]: Moved to stable identifier
15106view23:38, 25 May 2008AlexanderPicotweak
15104view23:34, 25 May 2008AlexanderPicotweak
15101view23:30, 25 May 2008AlexanderPicotweak
15099view23:28, 25 May 2008AlexanderPicotweak
15097view23:24, 25 May 2008AlexanderPicoconnected loose ends
15034view06:20, 25 May 2008Nsalomonismoved pathway
15032view06:17, 25 May 2008Nsalomonisfurther added metabolite IDs and integrated aliased objects
15030view06:13, 25 May 2008NsalomonisPeriodical save, work in progress
15028view06:02, 25 May 2008NsalomonisPeriodical save, work in progress
15026view05:52, 25 May 2008NsalomonisPeriodical save, work in progress

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
20-dihydroprogesteroneMetaboliteCHEBI:36728 (ChEBI)
ABCC4GeneProduct10257 (Entrez Gene)
AKR1BGeneProductP15121 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
AKR1C1GeneProduct1645 (Entrez Gene)
AKR1C2GeneProduct1646 (Entrez Gene)
AKR1C3GeneProduct8644 (Entrez Gene)
ANXA1GeneProduct301 (Entrez Gene)
ANXA2GeneProduct302 (Entrez Gene)
ANXA3GeneProduct306 (Entrez Gene)
ANXA4GeneProduct307 (Entrez Gene)
ANXA5GeneProduct308 (Entrez Gene)
ANXA6GeneProduct309 (Entrez Gene)
ANXA8GeneProduct244 (Entrez Gene)
Arachidonic AcidMetabolite506-32-1 (CAS)
CBR1GeneProduct873 (Entrez Gene)
CYP11A1GeneProduct1583 (Entrez Gene)
CalciumMetaboliteHMDB0000464 (HMDB)
Cell Membrane PhospholipidsMetaboliteCHEBI:16247 (ChEBI)
CortisolMetaboliteQ190875 (Wikidata)
CortisoneMetaboliteCHEBI:16962 (ChEBI)
EDN1GeneProduct1906 (Entrez Gene) PMID: 1474344
EDNRAGeneProduct1909 (Entrez Gene)
EDNRBGeneProduct1910 (Entrez Gene)
Gq signaling pathwayPathwayWP35 (WikiPathways)
HPGDGeneProduct3248 (Entrez Gene)
HPGDSGeneProduct27306 (Entrez Gene)
HSD11B1GeneProduct3290 (Entrez Gene)
HSD11B2GeneProduct3291 (Entrez Gene)
MITFGeneProduct4286 (Entrez Gene)
PGD2MetaboliteC00696 (KEGG Compound)
PGE2MetaboliteHMDB0003175 (HMDB)
PGF2aMetaboliteHMDB0001139 (HMDB)
PGI2MetaboliteHMDB0001335 (HMDB)
PLA2G4AGeneProduct5321 (Entrez Gene)
PPARGGeneProduct5468 (Entrez Gene)
PPARGC1AGeneProduct10891 (Entrez Gene)
PPARGC1BGeneProduct133522 (Entrez Gene)
PRLGeneProduct5617 (Entrez Gene)
PTGDRGeneProduct5729 (Entrez Gene)
PTGDSGeneProduct5730 (Entrez Gene)
PTGER1GeneProduct5731 (Entrez Gene)
PTGER2GeneProduct5732 (Entrez Gene)
PTGER3GeneProduct5733 (Entrez Gene)
PTGER4GeneProduct5734 (Entrez Gene)
PTGESGeneProduct9536 (Entrez Gene)
PTGFRGeneProduct5737 (Entrez Gene)
PTGFRNGeneProduct5738 (Entrez Gene)
PTGIRGeneProduct5739 (Entrez Gene)
PTGISGeneProduct5740 (Entrez Gene)
PTGS1GeneProduct5742 (Entrez Gene)
PTGS2GeneProduct5743 (Entrez Gene)
ProgesteroneMetabolite57-83-0 (CAS)
Prostaglandin H2Metabolite745-65-3 (CAS)
S100A10GeneProduct6281 (Entrez Gene) PMID: 12962548 relationship with Annexin 2
S100A6GeneProduct6277 (Entrez Gene)
SCGB1A1GeneProduct7356 (Entrez Gene) PMID: 7615804, PMID: 3292559
SOX9GeneProduct6662 (Entrez Gene)
TBXA2RGeneProduct6915 (Entrez Gene)
TBXAS1GeneProduct6916 (Entrez Gene)
TXA2MetaboliteHMDB0001452 (HMDB)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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