Vitamin A and Carotenoid Metabolism (Homo sapiens)

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8, 12, 16RE + dietary lipidsRhodopsin formationROL-binding proteinsgap junction communicationLiver/other organsRetinal pigment epithelium specific?Blood?RE + dietary lipidsRA-binding proteinsROL=retinol; RAL=retinaldehyde, RA = retinoic acid, RE = retinyl ester, RPE = retinal pigment epithelium ?chylomicronCytochrome P450 family?11-cis binding proteinDietEnterocyte?NucleusRE + dietary lipidsNuclear receptors?PPAR pathways13,14 dehydro RA11-cis-RetinalLuteinAldh1a1ZeaxanthinAlpha-CaroteneCyp26a1Retinyl esterbeta 10' apocorotenalSult1a1Aldh1a2RXRaARATall-trans RetinalRbp2all-trans RetinolVitamin ACanthaxanthinBetacaroteneAldh1a3Rbp7RetinalVitamin A aldehyde13,14 dehydroretinalBcmo1Scarb1LycopeneRetsatCrabp2AwatRPE65Dhrs3Rlbp1Cyp2e1Rdh5BetacaroteneRdh8all-trans Retinoic acidVitamin A acidRetinyl esterBetacaroteneAdh4Beta-CryptoxanthinAldh1a3Rbp4Astaxanthin9-cis-RetinolRdh12Npc1l1Aldh1a111-cis-RetinolRARgScarb1Lpl4-oxo-Retinoic acidAldh1a2RXRball-transe 4-oxo RAViolaxanthinSult2b1Rdh12All-trans-13,14-dihydroretinolBcmo1Vitamin D3Abcg5RetinolVitamin ALratAbcg8Retinol dehydrogenasesBcdo2Crabp1MAPKRdh5Cd36Rbp1BetacaroteneRetinolVitamin ACyp26b1LratRARa9-cis-RetinalRXRgAdh1RARb9-cis-Retinoic acidRdh10Bcmo13, 13, 14, 185, 61, 6, 74, 9-11, 15...2


This pathway is about carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism. The initial version was created by the NuGO focusteam on Carotenoid metabolism. It was used to test a text mining workflow which added some additional entities (see Waagmeester et al. 2009 [1]).

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Ontology Terms



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  1. Micozzi MS, Brown ED, Edwards BK, Bieri JG, Taylor PR, Khachik F, Beecher GR, Smith JC Jr; ''Plasma carotenoid response to chronic intake of selected foods and beta-carotene supplements in men.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Sun Y, Ng L, Lam W, Lo CK, Chan PT, Yuen YL, Wong PF, Tsang DS, Cheung WT, Lee SS; ''Identification and characterization of a novel mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-regulated and starvation-induced gene, Ppsig.''; Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Hidiroglou M, Williams CJ; ''Interrelationships among liposoluble vitamins in ruminants.''; Am J Vet Res, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Czeczuga-Semeniuk E, Wolczynski S, Markiewicz W; ''Preliminary identification of carotenoids in malignant and benign neoplasms of the breast and surrounding fatty tissue.''; Neoplasma, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Sies H, Stahl W, Sundquist AR; ''Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids.''; Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Handelman GJ, Dratz EA, Reay CC, van Kuijk JG; ''Carotenoids in the human macula and whole retina.''; Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Khachik F, Beecher GR, Goli MB, Lusby WR, Smith JC Jr; ''Separation and identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in the extracts of human plasma.''; Anal Chem, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Waagmeester A, Pezik P, Coort S, Tourniaire F, Evelo C, Rebholz-Schuhmann D; ''Pathway enrichment based on text mining and its validation on carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism.''; OMICS, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Ruhl CE, Everhart JE; ''Relation of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity with iron and antioxidant levels in the United States.''; Gastroenterology, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  10. VandenLangenberg GM, Brady WE, Nebeling LC, Block G, Forman M, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Mares-Perlman JA; ''Influence of using different sources of carotenoid data in epidemiologic studies.''; J Am Diet Assoc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  11. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Rojas-Hidalgo E; ''Seasonal and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  12. Bendich A, Olson JA; ''Biological actions of carotenoids.''; FASEB J, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC
  13. Amir H, Karas M, Giat J, Danilenko M, Levy R, Yermiahu T, Levy J, Sharoni Y; ''Lycopene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 cooperate in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of differentiation in HL-60 leukemic cells.''; Nutr Cancer, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  14. Johansson S, Melhus H; ''Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man.''; J Bone Miner Res, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  15. Boosalis MG, Snowdon DA, Tully CL, Gross MD; ''Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.''; Nutrition, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  16. Balmer JE, Blomhoff R; ''Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid.''; J Lipid Res, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  17. Huet F, Semama D, Maingueneau C, Charavel A, Nivelon JL; ''Vitamin A deficiency and nocturnal vision in teenagers with cystic fibrosis.''; Eur J Pediatr, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  18. Torma H, Rollman O, Binderup L, Michaelsson G; ''Vitamin D analogs affect the uptake and metabolism of retinol by human epidermal keratinocytes in culture.''; J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC


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103270view12:37, 20 February 2019DeSlModified description
97560view07:17, 25 May 2018Fehrhartfixed connections
83589view10:59, 26 November 2015EgonwAdded a reference for the function of Retsat.
79968view15:43, 28 April 2015ZariChanged Enzyme ID to Entrez gene
74442view07:24, 20 April 2014EgonwFixed a PubMed ID.
71992view11:21, 24 October 2013MkutmonChanged Unknown -> GeneProduct for Scarb1
71370view18:37, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
70757view20:29, 5 September 2013MaintBotadded datanode Type to Sult1a1
70756view20:28, 5 September 2013MaintBotadded datanode Types for missing entries
70033view01:59, 12 July 2013AlexanderPicoModified title
68936view17:34, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
68052view12:32, 29 June 2013EgonwFixed EC number data sources.
67744view11:57, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'vitamin A and metabolites signaling pathway' added !
59134view22:37, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
52902view09:57, 24 October 2012AnweshaPeriodical save, work in progress
46094view03:31, 15 December 2011AlexanderPicoconverted hugo to ensembl
46090view02:28, 15 December 2011AllanKuchinskyupdated HGNC IDs
45017view18:32, 6 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'metabolic pathway of cofactors and vitamins' added !
41087view23:21, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
38841view17:39, 24 September 2010KhanspersChanged nucleus
38356view07:17, 2 September 2010ThomasReverted to version '11:08, 17 May 2010' by Thomas
38355view07:16, 2 September 2010ThomasPeriodical save, work in progress
37110view11:08, 17 May 2010SusanAdd connection
37109view11:07, 17 May 2010SusanAdd Awat2
37108view10:45, 17 May 2010SusanAdd Awat
37107view10:28, 17 May 2010SusanAdd connection
37106view10:21, 17 May 2010EveloCorrected typo in title
37105view10:19, 17 May 2010SusanAdd connections
37103view10:15, 17 May 2010EveloModified title and version date
36978view11:10, 14 May 2010Evelofinishing up
36977view11:07, 14 May 2010Evelofinishing up
36976view10:57, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36975view10:47, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36974view10:35, 14 May 2010EveloMetabolites and connectors
36973view10:32, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36972view10:21, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36971view10:11, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36970view10:01, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36969view09:50, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36968view09:40, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36967view09:30, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36966view09:19, 14 May 2010EveloModified description
36965view18:04, 13 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36964view17:55, 13 May 2010EveloAdded retinol dh
36963view17:53, 13 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36962view17:50, 13 May 2010EveloSafety
36961view17:22, 13 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36959view17:12, 13 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36950view17:00, 13 May 2010EveloMinor edits
36944view11:34, 13 May 2010EveloCorrected many identifiers

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
11-cis-RetinalMetaboliteHMDB02152 (HMDB)
11-cis-RetinolMetaboliteHMDB06216 (HMDB)
13,14 dehydro RAMetabolite
13,14 dehydroretinalMetabolite
4-oxo-Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB06285 (HMDB)
9-cis-RetinalMetaboliteHMDB06218 (HMDB)
9-cis-Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB02369 (HMDB)
9-cis-RetinolMetaboliteHMDB06217 (HMDB)
ARATProtein8694 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg5GeneProduct64240 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg8GeneProduct64241 (Entrez Gene)
Adh1GeneProduct124 (Entrez Gene)
Adh4GeneProduct127 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a1GeneProduct216 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a2GeneProduct8854 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a3GeneProduct220 (Entrez Gene)
All-trans-13,14-dihydroretinolMetaboliteHMDB11618 (HMDB)
Alpha-CaroteneMetaboliteHMDB03993 (HMDB)
AstaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02204 (HMDB)
AwatGeneProduct158835 (Entrez Gene)
Bcdo2GeneProduct83875 (Entrez Gene)
Bcmo1GeneProduct53630 (Entrez Gene)
Beta-CryptoxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02268 (HMDB)
BetacaroteneMetaboliteHMDB00561 (HMDB)
CanthaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB03154 (HMDB)
Cd36GeneProduct948 (Entrez Gene)
Crabp1GeneProduct1381 (Entrez Gene)
Crabp2GeneProduct1382 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26a1GeneProduct1592 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26b1GeneProduct56603 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp2e1GeneProduct1571 (Entrez Gene)
Dhrs3GeneProduct9249 (Entrez Gene)
LplGeneProduct4023 (Entrez Gene)
LratGeneProductENSG00000121207 (Ensembl)
LuteinMetaboliteHMDB03233 (HMDB)
LycopeneMetaboliteHMDB03000 (HMDB)
MAPKGeneProduct5594 (Entrez Gene)
Npc1l1GeneProduct29881 (Entrez Gene)
RARaGeneProduct5914 (Entrez Gene)
RARbGeneProduct5915 (Entrez Gene)
RARgGeneProduct5916 (Entrez Gene)
RPE65GeneProduct6121 (Entrez Gene)
RXRaGeneProduct6256 (Entrez Gene)
RXRbGeneProduct6257 (Entrez Gene)
RXRgGeneProduct6258 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp1GeneProduct5947 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp2GeneProduct5948 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp4GeneProduct5950 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp7GeneProduct116362 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh10GeneProduct157506 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh12GeneProduct145226 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh5GeneProduct5959 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh8GeneProduct50700 (Entrez Gene)
Retinal Vitamin A aldehydeMetaboliteHMDB01358 (HMDB)
Retinol Vitamin AMetaboliteHMDB00305 (HMDB)
Retinol dehydrogenasesGeneProduct195814 (Entrez Gene)
Retinyl esterMetaboliteHMDB03598 (HMDB)
RetsatGeneProduct54884 (Entrez Gene)
Rlbp1GeneProduct6017 (Entrez Gene)
Scarb1GeneProduct949 (Entrez Gene)
Sult1a1GeneProduct6817 (Entrez Gene)
Sult2b1GeneProduct6820 (Entrez Gene)
ViolaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB03101 (HMDB)
Vitamin D3MetaboliteHMDB00876 (HMDB)
ZeaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02789 (HMDB)
all-trans RetinalMetaboliteHMDB01358 (HMDB)
all-trans Retinoic acid Vitamin A acidMetaboliteHMDB01852 (HMDB)
all-trans Retinol Vitamin AMetaboliteHMDB00305 (HMDB)
all-transe 4-oxo RAMetabolite
beta 10' apocorotenalMetabolite

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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