Amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid (Homo sapiens)

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1Acyl-CoA synthetasehippuric acidbenzoyl-AMPATPGLYATL1GLYATL2Benzoyl-CoABenzoic acidAMPglycineAcetyl CoAPhosphatePhosphateGLYATCoenzyme A


Despite being the first conjugation reaction demonstrated in humans, amino acid conjugation as a route of metabolism of xenobiotic carboxylic acids is not well characterised. This is principally due to the small number and limited structural diversity of xenobiotic substrates for amino acid conjugation. Unlike CYP and uridine 5′-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase, which are localised in the endoplasmic reticulum, the enzymes of amino acid conjugation reside in mitochondria. Unique among drug metabolism pathways, amino acid conjugation involves initial formation of a xenobiotic acyl-CoA thioester that is then conjugated principally with glycine in humans. Exogenously administered benzoic acid is metabolised to hippuric acid with a conjugation reaction in humans (as discovered in the first metabolism study in humans).

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  1. Knights KM, Sykes MJ, Miners JO; ''Amino acid conjugation: contribution to the metabolism and toxicity of xenobiotic carboxylic acids.''; Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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111034view04:43, 2 July 2020Fehrhartadded new ChEBI ID for Benzoic acid AMP ester
110978view14:28, 25 June 2020Fehrhartremoved wrong ID from Benzoic acid AMP ester - ID requested from Chebi
106159view12:05, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
96033view15:44, 15 February 2018DeSlModified description
96031view15:41, 15 February 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'PW:0000011' removed !
96030view15:41, 15 February 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'glycine metabolic pathway' added !
96029view15:39, 15 February 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'xenobiotic metabolic pathway' added !
96027view15:38, 15 February 2018DeSlRemoved "last modified" item
96026view15:37, 15 February 2018DeSlAdded literature reference
88588view19:32, 11 August 2016Mkutmonfix unconnected lines
63156view20:18, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating GPML version
59193view19:07, 22 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
58503view18:56, 14 February 2013MaintBotModified title
44949view12:34, 6 October 2011MartijnVanIerselOntology Term : 'amino acid metabolic pathway' added !
41176view23:42, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
32135view13:56, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
29685view10:14, 27 May 2009Pieter GiesbertzSpecify description
29684view10:13, 27 May 2009Pieter Giesbertzchanged title to specific process
29683view10:12, 27 May 2009Pieter GiesbertzChanged pathway and added datanodes
21774view11:32, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Amino Acid Conjugation]] moved to [[Pathway:WP521]]: Moved to stable identifier
14106view13:48, 21 May 2008Susan
14104view13:48, 21 May 2008SusanAdded Metabolite IDs
14101view13:20, 21 May 2008SusanPeriodical save, work in progress
14099view13:13, 21 May 2008SusanLinks added
11465view11:31, 1 April 2008Thomasadded some identifiers
11462view11:10, 1 April 2008MaintBotModified categories
11015view12:11, 3 March 2008Thomas[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:AZ conjugatie]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Amino Acid Conjugation]]: translated to English
10973view11:30, 28 February 2008Loreaz conjugatie pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AMPMetaboliteHMDB0000045 (HMDB)
ATPMetaboliteHMDB0000538 (HMDB)
Acetyl CoAMetabolite72-89-9 (CAS)
Acyl-CoA synthetaseGeneProduct55902 (Entrez Gene)
Benzoic acidMetabolite30746 (ChEBI)
Benzoyl-CoAMetaboliteHMDB0002252 (HMDB)
Coenzyme AMetaboliteHMDB0001423 (HMDB)
GLYATGeneProductENSG00000149124 (Ensembl)
GLYATL1GeneProductENSG00000166840 (Ensembl)
GLYATL2GeneProductENSG00000156689 (Ensembl)
PhosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001429 (HMDB)
benzoyl-AMPMetabolite156046 (ChEBI) Benzoic acid AMP ester
glycineMetaboliteHMDB0000123 (HMDB)
hippuric acidMetaboliteHMDB0000714 (HMDB)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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