Control of immune tolerance by vasoactive intestinal peptide (Homo sapiens)

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1NervesMacrophages- Balance towards Tregs comapred to Th1-cells- Balance towards Th2-cells compared to Th1-cellsTh2-cellsBlood vesselsT-cellIgG1IgG2APCIL4IFNGIL10IL2CD95IL12BMHCIIVIPTGFBCTLA4IL12AIL5TCRCD80CD86CD28Th2-cellTh1-cellIL10TregCD86B-cell


Control of immune tolerance by VIP controls immune homeostasis. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is released from nerve terminals (nervous source) and blood (endocrine source), or produced by T helper 2 (TH2) cells or macrophages (immune source) in response to antigenic and inflammatory stimulation. VIP induces immune tolerance and inhibits the autoimmune response through different non-excluding mechanisms. First, it induces the generation and differentiation of TH2-cell functions and decrease TH1-cell functions through direct actions on differentiating T cells, or indirectly by regulating antigen presenting cell (APC) functions. As a consequence, the inflammatory and autoimmune responses are impaired, and the anti-helminthic and atopic responses are increased, because the infiltration and activation of neutrophils and macrophages by interferon-γ (IFNγ) and the production of complement-activating IgG2 antibodies are avoided. Second, VIP impairs the co-stimulatory activity of APCs on effector T cells, inhibiting subsequent clonal expansion. This avoids the inflammatory response and its cytotoxic effect against the target tissue. Third, VIP induces the generation of regulatory T cells that suppress the activation of autoreactive T cells by producing interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ). This effect contributes to the maintenance of an anti-inflammatory state and restores immune tolerance.

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  1. Gonzalez-Rey E, Chorny A, Delgado M; ''Regulation of immune tolerance by anti-inflammatory neuropeptides.''; Nat Rev Immunol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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107333view12:34, 25 September 2019DeSlModified title
103753view23:11, 3 April 2019Khanspersconverted unconnected interactions to graphical lines
102522view19:24, 3 January 2019KhanspersModified description
102521view19:23, 3 January 2019KhanspersModified title
102469view06:10, 24 December 2018EgonwModified title
102459view16:09, 23 December 2018AriuttaOntology Term : 'signaling pathway pertinent to immunity' added !
102458view16:08, 23 December 2018AriuttaOntology Term : 'homeostasis pathway' added !
102289view15:52, 17 December 2018LaurentModified description
102288view15:48, 17 December 2018LaurentNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
CD28GeneProduct940 (Entrez Gene)
CD80GeneProduct941 (Entrez Gene)
CD86GeneProduct942 (Entrez Gene)
CD95GeneProduct355 (Entrez Gene)
CTLA4GeneProduct1493 (Entrez Gene)
IFNGGeneProduct3458 (Entrez Gene)
IL10GeneProduct3586 (Entrez Gene)
IL12AGeneProduct3592 (Entrez Gene)
IL12BGeneProduct3592 (Entrez Gene)
IL2GeneProduct3558 (Entrez Gene)
IL4GeneProduct3565 (Entrez Gene)
IL5GeneProduct3567 (Entrez Gene)
MHCIIGeneProductR-HSA-8951502 (Reactome)
TCRGeneProductAAA61095 (NCBI Protein)
TGFBGeneProduct7040 (Entrez Gene)
VIPGeneProduct7432 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

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