Viral Acute Myocarditis (Homo sapiens)

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34713162, 11, 1918, 23CAR/DAF complexHIV triggered immunemediated myocarditisAdjacent CardiomyocytesPrimary profibrotic cytokineApoptosis type I & IIExtracellular MatrixIncreased expr.Dystrophin deficiency leads to loss of the sarcoglycan complexpre-cursor to DCMPhosphorylated dimersmove to nucleusstimulate gene expressionDegradationDegeneration114211beta catenin pathwayB CellViral genomic RNA25Max. release ofprogeny virionMyocyte NecrosisFibrosisMyocyte atrophieType I induced apoptosisOverproduction of fibrofatty tissue in myocardiumDNA FragmentationCD8*T cellViral replication, inactivation of p21ras16CVB 1 3 5 can all bind to both CAR and DAFViral progeny releaseNucleusCosackie virusUbiquitin-Proteasome SystemMatrix degradation24SarcoplasmHIV-138AutoreactiveantibodiesHost protein synthesis shutoffinduction of CPE10, 33Apoptotic cardiomyocyteERSarcolemmaEnterovirus-induced Cardiomyopathy11Type II induced apoptosisVirus-specific antibodiesMyocyte dysfunctionDystrophinDecreased force transmissionIncreased cell permeabilitySarcoglycan complexAdeno Viruscell cycle arrestCellular activationSuppresses cytopathic effectsLoss of mechanicalstability of the cell21chaoticApoptosis and/or necrosisMyosinActin ReorganizationViral replicationDNA fragmentationwithin nucleusmitochondrionCD4*T Cellantigen presenting cellCalcium pumpMyocyteInflammationAD2 and 5 solely bind the CARHIV-2T cell receptorsignalling pathwayImmune-mediatedmyocyte damage43t-Bid18Symptomatic arrhythmiasEndothelin-1IL10JAK1EIF4G2SOCS1ECM-receptor interactionSTAT1ganglioside GM1IFNGIL6Nitric oxide synthaseTGFB1STAT34213CASP8ACTBprostaglandin E216SarcomereBAX41ATF-2SGCBILKCD412, 133C^PROFYNMMP9DAFRAC2ABL1BCL2L141RAF-1CASP2MK2CVB127pro-IL-1betaCASP6Tyrosine KinaseCASP7NOD24CCR5TLR3CYCS18, 24MEK 1/2PTCRAp53TNF-a5, 6BH3 Bid18peptidoglycan muramyl dipeptide8Catenin beta-1IgGHerbimycin Aglycophosphatidylinositol3, 24antigenPro-IL-18IL1CHRAC1MKK 3/6Ca2+AIF140CCND1JNK124TICAM1SOS1MAPK1RASA116SRC17, 31SGCATNFRSM5DFFB-45GSK3BAKT1AD2MHCIIMHC-1CD55CVB326, 29, 32, 37CARCXADRViral entryCVB322, 41T cell receptor alpha chain V regionSGCDHLA-DMAFormation ofcaveosomesfor CVB3 uptakeENDOG24, 30TLR4IL1PYCARDDFFA/ICADhsp27c-JunPerforin-1PIK324Cd28HIV28ITGALLAMA2CREB115, 36CXCR4ITGB2mature secreted forms9NFkB24CASP320, 39matrix metalloproteinasesIL12AKRT835MYH6IL2RAC3cardiac antigensDMD135 S A-particleBCL241DAP5412A^PRODAG1-BTLR5T-cell receptor beta chain V regionstriated muscle contractionNLRP3CASP9MKK 4/7CCR3DystrophinDAG1-aMacrophage13viral antigensEIF4G133, 41SGCGCD40LGBNIP2PARMyocarditisABL2reactive oxygen species generatorsNF-kBMAPK3CD80CAV1IgGcd86glycophosphatidylinositol3BH3 Bid18, 41Ca2+NucleusantigenPTCRADecreased expr.Increased expr.? Promotes tissue fibrosis ?CAAP1PARP124PABPC1ProteasomeMAPK1IL12B


Viral Myocarditis is a rare cardiac disease associated with the inflammation and injury of the myocardium. The downstream effects are a product of cooperation between viral processes and both the adaptive as innate host's immune response. Acute appearance of myocarditis is mostly idiopathic (=of unknown origin). Primarily established on clinical observation and limited epidemiologic studies. Most studied cases are coxsackie, adeno and human immunodeficiency virus. Grey compartments describe extracellular matrix. Direct lines indicate downstream effects and dashed lines indicate speculative research.

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107305view14:37, 19 September 2019EgonwRemove an empty ChEBI identifier
107166view14:25, 17 September 2019MaintBotChEBI identifier normalization
106151view12:04, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
98082view18:38, 17 July 2018Khanspersone more author name
98081view18:36, 17 July 2018Khanspersremoved empty comment field
98080view18:31, 17 July 2018Khanspersone more author name
98079view18:30, 17 July 2018Khanspersfixing faulty rendering of author names
98072view15:15, 16 July 2018Fehrhartadded some annotations
98071view14:37, 16 July 2018FehrhartModified description
97885view18:39, 17 June 2018Olivier.traetsupdated mim-interactions
97880view10:01, 14 June 2018Olivier.traetsUpdated cascade annotations
97878view09:19, 13 June 2018Olivier.traetsModified description
97845view20:59, 10 June 2018Olivier.traetsupdated secondary to primary identifier
97844view19:52, 10 June 2018Olivier.traetsUpdated cascade anotations
97843view19:39, 10 June 2018Olivier.traetsUpdated anotation
97842view19:33, 10 June 2018Olivier.traetsChanged a secundary to a primary identifier
97716view09:23, 7 June 2018Olivier.traetsAdditional data nodes
97711view21:25, 6 June 2018Olivier.traetsAdded complementary proteins
97708view13:56, 6 June 2018Olivier.traetsVisual update
97707view12:02, 6 June 2018Olivier.traetsVisual changes
97706view11:56, 6 June 2018Olivier.traetsVisual changes
97696view09:17, 3 June 2018EgonwModified title
97685view15:05, 1 June 2018EgonwReplaced a secondary ChEBI identifier with a primary identifier.
97615view11:45, 30 May 2018FehrhartOntology Term : 'viral infectious disease' added !
97614view11:44, 30 May 2018FehrhartOntology Term : 'cardiac muscle cell' added !
97613view11:43, 30 May 2018FehrhartOntology Term : 'myocarditis' added !
97612view11:43, 30 May 2018FehrhartOntology Term : 'myocarditis pathway' added !
97611view11:42, 30 May 2018FehrhartOntology Term : 'cardiomyopathy pathway' added !
97610view11:41, 30 May 2018FehrhartOntology Term : 'disease pathway' added !
97597view15:56, 28 May 2018Olivier.traetsModified title
97596view15:56, 28 May 2018Olivier.traetsNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
135 S A-particleRna
2A^PROGeneProductMulders MN, Lipskaya GY, van der Avoort HG, Koopmans MP, Kew OM, van Loon AM.

Molecular epidemiology of wild poliovirus type 1 in Europe, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. J Infect Dis 1995;171:1399-1405. 34. Mulders MN, Salminen M, Kalkkinen N, Hovi T. Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus B4 and disclosure of the correct VP1/2A(pro) cleavage site: evidence for high genomic diversity and long-term endemicity of distinct genotypes. J Gen Virol 2000;81 Part 3:803-812. 35. Rico-Hesse R, Pallansch MA, Nottay BK, Kew OM. Geographic distribution of wild poliovirus

type 1 genotypes. Virology 1987;160:311-322.
ABL1GeneProductENSG00000097007 (Ensembl)
ABL2GeneProductENSG00000143322 (Ensembl)
ACTBGeneProductENSG00000075624 (Ensembl)
  • subgroups: A, C, D, E & F
  • Type your comment here
AIF1GeneProductENSG00000204472 (Ensembl)
AKT1GeneProductENSG00000142208 (Ensembl)
ATF-2ProteinP16951 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BAXGeneProductENSG00000087088 (Ensembl)
BCL2GeneProductENSG00000171791 (Ensembl)
BCL2L1GeneProductENSG00000171552 (Ensembl) BCL-XL
BH3 BidProteinA8ASI8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BNIP2GeneProductENSG00000140299 (Ensembl)
CAAP1GeneProductENSG00000120159 (Ensembl)
CAR CXADRProteinENSG00000154639.18 (Ensembl)
CASP2GeneProductENSG00000106144 (Ensembl)
CASP3GeneProductENSG00000164305 (Ensembl)
CASP6GeneProductENSG00000138794 (Ensembl)
CASP7GeneProductENSG00000165806 (Ensembl)
CASP8ProteinENSG00000064012 (Ensembl)
CASP9GeneProductENSG00000132906 (Ensembl)
CAV1GeneProductENSG00000105974 (Ensembl)
CCND1GeneProductENSG00000110092 (Ensembl)
CCR3GeneProductENSG00000183625 (Ensembl)
CCR5GeneProductENSG00000160791 (Ensembl)
CD40LGGeneProductENSG00000102245 (Ensembl)
CD4GeneProductENSG00000010610 (Ensembl)
CD55GeneProductENSG00000196352 (Ensembl)
CD80GeneProductENSG00000121594 (Ensembl)
CHRAC1GeneProductENSG00000104472 (Ensembl)
CREB1GeneProductENSG00000118260 (Ensembl)
CVB1 Enterovirus B
  • Enterovirus B
CXCR4GeneProductENSG00000121966 (Ensembl)
CYCSGeneProductENSG00000172115 (Ensembl)
Ca2+MetaboliteHMDB00464 (HMDB)
Catenin beta-1ProteinE9PW26 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Cd28GeneProduct12487 (Entrez Gene)
DAFProteinA0A1U8D6D6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) Dispensible for productive replication
DAG1-BGeneProduct1605 (Entrez Gene)
DAG1-aGeneProductENSG00000173402 (Ensembl)
DAP5GeneProductENSG00000110321 (Ensembl)
DFFA/ICADGeneProductENSG00000160049 (Ensembl)
DFFB-45 GeneProductENSG00000169598 (Ensembl)
DMDGeneProductENSG00000198947 (Ensembl)
DystrophinProteinA2A9Z1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ECM-receptor interactionPathwayhsa04512 (KEGG Pathway)
EIF4G1GeneProductENSG00000114867 (Ensembl)
EIF4G2GeneProductENSG00000110321 (Ensembl)
ENDOGGeneProductENSG00000167136 (Ensembl)
Endothelin-1ProteinP05305 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
FYNGeneProductENSG00000010810 (Ensembl)
Formation of


for CVB3 uptake
Coyne and Bergelson (2006).
GSK3BGeneProductENSG00000082701 (Ensembl)
HLA-DMAGeneProductENSG00000204257 (Ensembl)
Herbimycin AMetaboliteCHEBI:5674 (ChEBI)
IFNGGeneProductENSG00000111537 (Ensembl)
IL10GeneProductENSG00000136634 (Ensembl)
IL12AGeneProductENSG00000168811 (Ensembl)
IL12BGeneProductENSG00000113302 (Ensembl)
IL1ProteinG3V169 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
IL1GeneProductPF00340 (Pfam) IL1 protein family
IL2ProteinP60568 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
IL6 GeneProductENSG00000136244 (Ensembl)
ITGALGeneProductENSG00000005844 (Ensembl)
ITGB2GeneProductENSG00000160255 (Ensembl)
JAK1GeneProductENSG00000162434 (Ensembl)
JNK1 ProteinA0A087WVY6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
KRT8GeneProductENSG00000170421 (Ensembl)
LAMA2GeneProductENSG00000196569 (Ensembl)
MAPK1GeneProductENSG00000100030 (Ensembl) alternative name ERK2
MAPK3GeneProductENSG00000102882 (Ensembl) alternative name ERK1
MEK 1/2Protein
MHC-1 ProteinA0A024RCL3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
MHCII Protein
MKK 3/6Protein
MKK 4/7Protein
MMP9GeneProductENSG00000100985 (Ensembl)
MYH6GeneProductENSG00000197616 (Ensembl)
Macrophage GeneProduct
Myocarditis Pathwaymap05416 (KEGG Pathway)
NFkBGeneProductENSG00000077150 (Ensembl)
NOD2ProteinE9PLF7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Nitric oxide synthaseProteinB3VK56 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PABPC1GeneProductENSG00000070756 (Ensembl)
PARP1GeneProductENSG00000143799 (Ensembl)
PIK3GeneProductENSG00000145675 (Ensembl)
PTCRAGeneProductENSG00000171611 (Ensembl)
PYCARDGeneProductENSG00000103490 (Ensembl) Adaptor protein ASC
Perforin-1ProteinP10820 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ProteasomePathwayhsa03050 (KEGG Pathway)
RAC2GeneProductENSG00000128340 (Ensembl)
RAC3GeneProductENSG00000169750 (Ensembl)
RAF-1MetaboliteHMDB03213 (HMDB)
RASA1GeneProductENSG00000145715 (Ensembl)
SGCAGeneProductENSG00000108823 (Ensembl)
SGCBGeneProductENSG00000163069 (Ensembl)
SGCDGeneProductENSG00000170624 (Ensembl)
SGCGGeneProductENSG00000102683 (Ensembl)
SOCS1GeneProductENSG00000185338 (Ensembl)
SOS1GeneProductENSG00000115904 (Ensembl)
SRCProteinENSG00000197122 (Ensembl)
STAT1GeneProductENSG00000115415 (Ensembl)
STAT3GeneProductENSG00000168610 (Ensembl)
T cell receptor alpha chain V regionGeneProduct
T-cell receptor beta chain V regionGeneProduct
TGFB1GeneProductENSG00000105329 (Ensembl)
TLR3GeneProductENSG00000164342 (Ensembl)
  • low expression
  • Type your comment here
TLR4GeneProductENSG00000136869 (Ensembl)
  • low expression
  • Type your comment here
TLR5GeneProductENSG00000187554 (Ensembl)
  • high expression
  • Type your comment here
TNF-aProteinENSG00000232810 (Ensembl)
TNFRSM5ProteinP27512 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Tyrosine Kinase Protein
Viral entry CVB3GeneProduct
c-JunProteinQ9WVI9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
cardiac antigens
cd86 ProteinD3Z363 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ganglioside GM1MetaboliteCHEBI:18216 (ChEBI)
matrix metalloproteinasesProtein
mature secreted forms
p53ProteinA0A0R4J1K8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
peptidoglycan muramyl dipeptideGeneProduct
prostaglandin E2MetaboliteCHEBI:606564 (ChEBI)
reactive oxygen species generatorsMetaboliteCHEBI:70982 (ChEBI)
striated muscle contractionPathwayWP383 (WikiPathways)
viral antigens

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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