Metabolic reprogramming in colon cancer (Homo sapiens)

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NucleusMitochondriaTumor cellWarburg effect3Carbon sourcepH balanceNitrogen sourceCell cycleProliferationAmino acid synthesisNH3GOT2PSAT1IClipidsGlycolysisPPATGLSG6PDPhosphoserineKGIMP3PHPSLC1A5glutamatePYCR1AsparagineglucoseGLUD1Oxidative phosphorylationG6PF6PHK3GPITIGARPFKLG3PF1,6PGAPDH2PG1,3BPG3PGALDOBPGK1PGAM1LDHALactateENO1PyruvatePEPPKMSLC16A3LactateAcetyl-CoAPDHA1MalatePDHB912, 136OAAACO2SUCLG2DLSTIDH2citrateFHfumarateMDH2S-CoA81, 15SDHBIDH3AAcetyl-CoAACLYFASNPSPHSHMT2PAICSserineglycineGARTS7PR5P6PGAE4PRi5PTALDO1RPIATKTPGDPentose Phosphate PathwayTCA CycleglutamineGlutathioneROSglutamineProlinePYCR2SLC2A1Purine synthesisNucleotide synthesisAmino acid synthesisLipid synthesis


Metabolic reprogramming in colon cancer. This pathway was created from a figure by Vasaikar S and Zhang B, Baylor College of Medicine, June 2018.

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Ontology Terms



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  1. Sheu KF, Blass JP; ''The alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex.''; Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Fernandez CA, Des Rosiers C; ''Modeling of liver citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis based on 13C mass isotopomer distribution analysis of intermediates.''; J Biol Chem, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Lawson AM, Chalmers RA, Watts RW; ''Urinary organic acids in man. I. Normal patterns.''; Clin Chem, 1976 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Gabriel JL, Zervos PR, Plaut GW; ''Activity of purified NAD-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase at modulator and substrate concentrations approximating conditions in mitochondria.''; Metabolism, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Hoek JB, Rydström J; ''Physiological roles of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase.''; Biochem J, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Sazanov LA, Jackson JB; ''Proton-translocating transhydrogenase and NAD- and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases operate in a substrate cycle which contributes to fine regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in mitochondria.''; FEBS Lett, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Lambeth DO, Tews KN, Adkins S, Frohlich D, Milavetz BI; ''Expression of two succinyl-CoA synthetases with different nucleotide specificities in mammalian tissues.''; J Biol Chem, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Des Rosiers C, Fernandez CA, David F, Brunengraber H; ''Reversibility of the mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction in the perfused rat liver. Evidence from isotopomer analysis of citric acid cycle intermediates.''; J Biol Chem, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Krebs HA, Holzach O; ''The conversion of citrate into cis-aconitate and isocitrate in the presence of aconitase.''; Biochem J, 1952 PubMed Europe PMC
  10. Comte B, Vincent G, Bouchard B, Benderdour M, Des Rosiers C; ''Reverse flux through cardiac NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase under normoxia and ischemia.''; Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  11. Bricker DK, Taylor EB, Schell JC, Orsak T, Boutron A, Chen YC, Cox JE, Cardon CM, Van Vranken JG, Dephoure N, Redin C, Boudina S, Gygi SP, Brivet M, Thummel CS, Rutter J; ''A mitochondrial pyruvate carrier required for pyruvate uptake in yeast, Drosophila, and humans.''; Science, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC
  12. Greksák M, Lopes-Cardozo M, van den Bergh SG; ''Citrate synthesis in intact rat-liver mitochondria is irreversible.''; Eur J Biochem, 1982 PubMed Europe PMC
  13. Des Rosiers C, Di Donato L, Comte B, Laplante A, Marcoux C, David F, Fernandez CA, Brunengraber H; ''Isotopomer analysis of citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis in rat liver. Reversibility of isocitrate dehydrogenase and involvement of ATP-citrate lyase in gluconeogenesis.''; J Biol Chem, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  14. Liu TC, Kim H, Arizmendi C, Kitano A, Patel MS; ''Identification of two missense mutations in a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-deficient patient.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  15. Johnson JD, Muhonen WW, Lambeth DO; ''Characterization of the ATP- and GTP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetases in pigeon. The enzymes incorporate the same alpha-subunit.''; J Biol Chem, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC


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106793view13:27, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
103741view20:40, 2 April 2019AlexanderPicoUpdated interaction paths and connections to cell cycle proliferation
97977view17:07, 28 June 2018Khanspersupdated PKM, added GLUD1 and GLS
97968view23:13, 27 June 2018KhanspersModified description
97967view23:11, 27 June 2018Khansperspathway nodes, proper cellular compartments
97421view11:49, 16 May 2018EgonwReplaced secondary ChEBI identifiers with primary identifiers.
97411view18:51, 15 May 2018KhanspersModified title
97409view18:43, 15 May 2018KhanspersOntology Term : 'colorectal cancer' added !
97408view18:43, 15 May 2018KhanspersOntology Term : 'cancer pathway' added !
97407view18:43, 15 May 2018KhanspersOntology Term : 'altered carbohydrate metabolic pathway' added !
97406view18:42, 15 May 2018KhanspersNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
1,3BPGMetaboliteHMDB01270 (HMDB)
2PGMetaboliteHMDB00362 (HMDB)
3PGMetaboliteHMDB00807 (HMDB)
3PHPMetaboliteCHEBI:18110 (ChEBI)
6PGAMetaboliteHMDB01316 (HMDB)
ACLYGeneProductENSG00000131473 (Ensembl)
ACO2GeneProductENSG00000100412 (Ensembl)
ALDOBGeneProductENSG00000136872 (Ensembl)
Acetyl-CoAMetaboliteHMDB01206 (HMDB)
Amino acid synthesisPathway
AsparagineMetaboliteCHEBI:50347 (ChEBI)
Cell cycle ProliferationPathway
DLSTGeneProductENSG00000119689 (Ensembl)
E4PMetaboliteHMDB01321 (HMDB)
ENO1GeneProductENSG00000074800 (Ensembl)
F1,6PMetaboliteHMDB01058 (HMDB)
F6PMetaboliteCHEBI:16084 (ChEBI)
FASNGeneProductENSG00000169710 (Ensembl)
FHGeneProductENSG00000091483 (Ensembl)
G3PMetaboliteHMDB01112 (HMDB)
G6PMetaboliteCHEBI:4170 (ChEBI)
G6PDGeneProductENSG00000160211 (Ensembl)
GAPDHGeneProductENSG00000111640 (Ensembl)
GARTGeneProductENSG00000159131 (Ensembl)
GLSGeneProductENSG00000115419 (Ensembl)
GLUD1GeneProductENSG00000148672 (Ensembl)
GOT2GeneProductENSG00000125166 (Ensembl)
GPIGeneProductENSG00000105220 (Ensembl)
GlutathioneMetaboliteCHEBI:16856 (ChEBI)
HK3GeneProductENSG00000160883 (Ensembl)
ICMetaboliteCHEBI:16087 (ChEBI)
IDH2GeneProductENSG00000182054 (Ensembl)
IDH3AGeneProductENSG00000166411 (Ensembl)
IMPMetaboliteCHEBI:17202 (ChEBI)
KGMetaboliteCHEBI:16810 (ChEBI)
LDHAGeneProductENSG00000134333 (Ensembl)
LactateMetaboliteHMDB00190 (HMDB)
Lipid synthesisPathway
MDH2GeneProductENSG00000146701 (Ensembl)
MalateMetaboliteHMDB00744 (HMDB)
NH3MetaboliteCHEBI:16134 (ChEBI)
Nucleotide synthesisPathway
OAAMetaboliteHMDB00223 (HMDB)
Oxidative phosphorylationPathwayWP623 (WikiPathways)
PAICSGeneProductENSG00000128050 (Ensembl)
PDHA1GeneProductENSG00000131828 (Ensembl)
PDHBGeneProductENSG00000168291 (Ensembl)
PEPMetaboliteHMDB00263 (HMDB)
PFKLGeneProductENSG00000141959 (Ensembl)
PGAM1GeneProductENSG00000171314 (Ensembl)
PGDGeneProductENSG00000142657 (Ensembl)
PGK1GeneProductENSG00000102144 (Ensembl)
PKMGeneProductENSG00000067225 (Ensembl)
PPATGeneProductENSG00000128059 (Ensembl)
PSAT1GeneProductENSG00000135069 (Ensembl)
PSPHGeneProductENSG00000146733 (Ensembl)
PYCR1GeneProductENSG00000183010 (Ensembl)
PYCR2GeneProductENSG00000143811 (Ensembl)
Pentose Phosphate PathwayPathway
PhosphoserineMetaboliteCHEBI:45522 (ChEBI)
ProlineMetaboliteCHEBI:26271 (ChEBI)
Purine synthesisPathway
PyruvateMetaboliteHMDB00243 (HMDB)
R5PMetabolite3615-55-2 (CAS)
ROSMetaboliteQ424361 (Wikidata)
RPIAGeneProductENSG00000153574 (Ensembl)
Ri5PMetabolite4151-19-3 (CAS)
S-CoAMetaboliteHMDB01022 (HMDB) The ChEBI ID with the correct charge is: 57292
S7PMetabolite2646-35-7 (CAS)
SDHBGeneProductENSG00000117118 (Ensembl)
SHMT2GeneProductENSG00000182199 (Ensembl)
SLC16A3GeneProductENSG00000141526 (Ensembl)
SLC1A5GeneProductENSG00000105281 (Ensembl)
SLC2A1GeneProductENSG00000117394 (Ensembl)
SUCLG2GeneProductENSG00000172340 (Ensembl)
TALDO1GeneProductENSG00000177156 (Ensembl)
TCA CyclePathway
TIGARGeneProductENSG00000078237 (Ensembl)
TKTGeneProductENSG00000163931 (Ensembl)
citrateMetaboliteHMDB00094 (HMDB)
fumarateMetaboliteHMDB00134 (HMDB)
glucoseMetaboliteCHEBI:17234 (ChEBI)
glutamateMetaboliteCHEBI:14321 (ChEBI)
glutamineMetaboliteCHEBI:28300 (ChEBI)
glycineMetaboliteCHEBI:15428 (ChEBI)
lipidsMetaboliteCHEBI:18059 (ChEBI)
serineMetaboliteCHEBI:17822 (ChEBI)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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