Nicotinate metabolism (Homo sapiens)

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2214, 31, 346, 30, 32, 4711, 21, 23, 29, 512, 6, 302512, 37, 38, 4318, 21, 23, 29710, 535021, 23, 2911, 18, 21, 23, 29424420, 4816, 394493, 5, 3326, 4110, 24, 35, 521, 6, 15, 308, 36, 40, 464914, 31, 346, 30, 32, 4713, 27, 28419, 17cytosolGolgi lumenperoxisomal matrixendoplasmic reticulum lumenmitochondrial matrixnucleoplasmL-GlnATPSLC5A8NADSYN1 hexamerH2OPTGIS H+AdoMetheme b NADSYN1 NADK2 dimeradenosine5'-monophosphatePYR NARH2OADP(3-)NAADNADHH2ONADP+monocarboxylatestransported bySLC5A8NMNPPiPARP14 H+BST1 dimerPRPPNRNT5E:Zn2+ dimerMg2+ NCA CYP8B1 PTGS2 ATP(4-)PPi(3-)Mg2+NMNPPiCARKDCD38EtCOO- or C2H5COO- NAD+PPi(3-)Zn2+ ADPAPOA1BP dimerNADK2 PTGIS,CYP8B1NMRK2PARP10 NAMPPi(3-)Na+NAD+ATP(4-)1,2-dh-beta-NAD NUDT12ACSNAADNNMTPARP9 NCAH2OPARPsPiNAMNPARP6 4xNMNAT3:4xMg2+NMNHATPATP(4-)NMRK1PPiL-GluPRPPH+BUT (ADP-D-ribosyl)(n+1)-acceptorH+SLC22A13NAMNNADPHH2OADP(3-)H2ONAMNZn2+ S-NADPHXNADK:Zn2+ tetramerPARP8 NCACH3COO- NAD+RNLS:FADNAMLACT PRPPNAPRT1 dimerPARP4 6xNMNAT1:6xZn2+CH3COO- (ADP-D-ribosyl)(n)-acceptorH2O2Mg2+ ATP(4-)PGI2ATP(4-)NRNAMQUINAPOA1BP ATPQPRTPGG2H+ADP-riboseAdoHcyATPNMNAT2 Na+H+monocarboxylatestransported bySLC5A8RNLS BST1 PiPGH2H+H2OH+H+NMRK2NAMPTPTGS2 dimerFAD NT5E NADK NADP+NAADPPi(3-)EtCOO- or C2H5COO- CO2e-NCA MNA1,6-dh-beta-NAD Histidine, lysine,phenylalanine,tyrosine, prolineand tryptophancatabolismPPiZn2+ NMNAT3 NMNAT2:Mg2+PARP16 O2NAPRT1 ADPdh-beta-NADAMPBUT LACT NMNAT1 R-NADPHXPYR Pi212131, 4521192121256


Description

Nicotinate (niacin) and nicotinamide are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). When NAD+ and NADP+ are interchanged in a reaction with their reduced forms, NADH and NADPH respectively, they are important cofactors in several hundred redox reactions. Nicotinate is synthesized from 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, an intermediate in the catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan (Magni et al. 2004). View original pathway at:Reactome.

Comments

Reactome-Converter 
Pathway is converted from Reactome ID: 196807
Reactome-version 
Reactome version: 66
Reactome Author 
Reactome Author: Jassal, Bijay

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Bibliography

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History

View all...
CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
101268view11:15, 1 November 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 66
100806view20:44, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 65
100348view19:21, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 64
99893view16:04, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 63
99450view14:37, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62 (2nd attempt)
93524view11:26, 9 August 2017ReactomeTeamNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
(ADP-D-ribosyl)(n)-acceptorMetaboliteCHEBI:133202 (ChEBI)
(ADP-D-ribosyl)(n+1)-acceptorMetaboliteCHEBI:133203 (ChEBI)
1,2-dh-beta-NAD MetaboliteCHEBI:90171 (ChEBI)
1,6-dh-beta-NAD MetaboliteCHEBI:90174 (ChEBI)
4xNMNAT3:4xMg2+ComplexR-HSA-200487 (Reactome)
6xNMNAT1:6xZn2+ComplexR-HSA-200489 (Reactome)
ACSMetaboliteCHEBI:29044 (ChEBI)
ADP(3-)MetaboliteCHEBI:456216 (ChEBI)
ADP-riboseMetaboliteCHEBI:57967 (ChEBI)
ADPMetaboliteCHEBI:16761 (ChEBI)
AMPMetaboliteCHEBI:16027 (ChEBI)
APOA1BP ProteinQ8NCW5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
APOA1BP dimerComplexR-HSA-6807487 (Reactome)
ATP(4-)MetaboliteCHEBI:30616 (ChEBI) ATP(4-) is the major ionization state of ATP at pH 7.2 (Stockbridge & Wolfenden 2009).
ATPMetaboliteCHEBI:15422 (ChEBI)
AdoHcyMetaboliteCHEBI:16680 (ChEBI)
AdoMetMetaboliteCHEBI:15414 (ChEBI)
BST1 ProteinQ10588 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BST1 dimerComplexR-HSA-8870344 (Reactome)
BUT MetaboliteCHEBI:30772 (ChEBI)
CARKDProteinQ8IW45 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CD38ProteinP28907 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CH3COO- MetaboliteCHEBI:15366 (ChEBI)
CO2MetaboliteCHEBI:16526 (ChEBI)
CYP8B1 ProteinQ9UNU6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
EtCOO- or C2H5COO- MetaboliteCHEBI:30768 (ChEBI)
FAD MetaboliteCHEBI:16238 (ChEBI)
H+MetaboliteCHEBI:15378 (ChEBI)
H2O2MetaboliteCHEBI:16240 (ChEBI)
H2OMetaboliteCHEBI:15377 (ChEBI)
Histidine, lysine,

phenylalanine, tyrosine, proline and tryptophan

catabolism
PathwayR-HSA-6788656 (Reactome) The catabolic pathways of histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, proline and tryptophan are described in this section (Berg et al. 2002).
L-GlnMetaboliteCHEBI:58359 (ChEBI)
L-GluMetaboliteCHEBI:29985 (ChEBI)
LACT MetaboliteCHEBI:422 (ChEBI)
MNAMetaboliteCHEBI:16797 (ChEBI)
Mg2+ MetaboliteCHEBI:18420 (ChEBI)
Mg2+MetaboliteCHEBI:18420 (ChEBI)
NAADMetaboliteCHEBI:18304 (ChEBI)
NAD+MetaboliteCHEBI:15846 (ChEBI)
NADHMetaboliteCHEBI:16908 (ChEBI)
NADK ProteinO95544 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NADK2 ProteinQ4G0N4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NADK2 dimerComplexR-HSA-8955031 (Reactome)
NADK:Zn2+ tetramerComplexR-HSA-197222 (Reactome)
NADP+MetaboliteCHEBI:18009 (ChEBI)
NADPHMetaboliteCHEBI:16474 (ChEBI)
NADSYN1 ProteinQ6IA69 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NADSYN1 hexamerComplexR-HSA-197192 (Reactome)
NAMMetaboliteCHEBI:17154 (ChEBI)
NAMNMetaboliteCHEBI:15763 (ChEBI)
NAMPTProteinP43490 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NAPRT1 ProteinQ6XQN6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NAPRT1 dimerComplexR-HSA-389377 (Reactome)
NARMetaboliteCHEBI:58527 (ChEBI)
NCA MetaboliteCHEBI:15940 (ChEBI)
NCA MetaboliteCHEBI:32544 (ChEBI)
NCAMetaboliteCHEBI:15940 (ChEBI)
NCAMetaboliteCHEBI:32544 (ChEBI)
NMNAT1 ProteinQ9HAN9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NMNAT2 ProteinQ9BZQ4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NMNAT2:Mg2+ComplexR-HSA-197266 (Reactome)
NMNAT3 ProteinQ96T66 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NMNMetaboliteCHEBI:14649 (ChEBI)
NMNHMetaboliteCHEBI:74452 (ChEBI)
NMRK1ProteinQ9NWW6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NMRK2ProteinQ9NPI5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NNMTProteinP40261 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NRMetaboliteCHEBI:15927 (ChEBI)
NRNAMMetaboliteCHEBI:15927 (ChEBI)
NT5E ProteinP21589 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NT5E:Zn2+ dimerComplexR-HSA-109266 (Reactome)
NUDT12ProteinQ9BQG2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Na+MetaboliteCHEBI:29101 (ChEBI)
O2MetaboliteCHEBI:15379 (ChEBI)
PARP10 ProteinQ53GL7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PARP14 ProteinQ460N5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PARP16 ProteinQ8N5Y8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PARP4 ProteinQ9UKK3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PARP6 ProteinQ2NL67 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PARP8 ProteinQ8N3A8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PARP9 ProteinQ8IXQ6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PARPsComplexR-HSA-8938273 (Reactome)
PGG2MetaboliteCHEBI:27647 (ChEBI)
PGH2MetaboliteCHEBI:15554 (ChEBI)
PGI2MetaboliteCHEBI:15552 (ChEBI)
PPi(3-)MetaboliteCHEBI:33019 (ChEBI)
PPiMetaboliteCHEBI:29888 (ChEBI)
PRPPMetaboliteCHEBI:17111 (ChEBI)
PTGIS ProteinQ16647 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PTGIS,CYP8B1ComplexR-HSA-3222410 (Reactome) This CandidateSet contains sequences identified by William Pearson's analysis of Reactome catalyst entities. Catalyst entity sequences were used to identify analagous sequences that shared overall homology and active site homology. Sequences in this Candidate set were identified in an April 24, 2012 analysis.
PTGS2 ProteinP35354 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PTGS2 dimerComplexR-HSA-140491 (Reactome)
PYR MetaboliteCHEBI:32816 (ChEBI)
PiMetaboliteCHEBI:18367 (ChEBI)
QPRTProteinQ15274 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
QUINMetaboliteCHEBI:46828 (ChEBI)
R-NADPHXMetaboliteCHEBI:64085 (ChEBI)
RNLS ProteinQ5VYX0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
RNLS:FADComplexR-HSA-8956472 (Reactome)
S-NADPHXMetaboliteCHEBI:64084 (ChEBI)
SLC22A13ProteinQ9Y226 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC5A8ProteinQ8N695 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Zn2+ MetaboliteCHEBI:29105 (ChEBI)
adenosine 5'-monophosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:16027 (ChEBI)
dh-beta-NADComplexR-ALL-8956473 (Reactome)
e-MetaboliteCHEBI:10545 (ChEBI)
heme b MetaboliteCHEBI:26355 (ChEBI)
monocarboxylates

transported by

SLC5A8
ComplexR-ALL-429739 (Reactome)
monocarboxylates

transported by

SLC5A8
ComplexR-ALL-429748 (Reactome)

Annotated Interactions

View all...
SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
(ADP-D-ribosyl)(n)-acceptorR-HSA-8938073 (Reactome)
(ADP-D-ribosyl)(n+1)-acceptorArrowR-HSA-8938073 (Reactome)
4xNMNAT3:4xMg2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-200474 (Reactome)
6xNMNAT1:6xZn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-200512 (Reactome)
ACSR-HSA-197187 (Reactome)
ADP(3-)ArrowR-HSA-8869606 (Reactome)
ADP(3-)ArrowR-HSA-8869607 (Reactome)
ADP(3-)ArrowR-HSA-8869627 (Reactome)
ADP(3-)ArrowR-HSA-8869633 (Reactome)
ADP-riboseArrowR-HSA-8870346 (Reactome)
ADP-riboseArrowR-HSA-8938076 (Reactome)
ADPArrowR-HSA-197198 (Reactome)
ADPArrowR-HSA-6806967 (Reactome)
ADPArrowR-HSA-8955030 (Reactome)
AMPArrowR-HSA-197271 (Reactome)
APOA1BP dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-6806966 (Reactome)
ATP(4-)R-HSA-197235 (Reactome)
ATP(4-)R-HSA-200474 (Reactome)
ATP(4-)R-HSA-200512 (Reactome)
ATP(4-)R-HSA-8869606 (Reactome)
ATP(4-)R-HSA-8869607 (Reactome)
ATP(4-)R-HSA-8869627 (Reactome)
ATP(4-)R-HSA-8869633 (Reactome)
ATP(4-)R-HSA-8939959 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-197198 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-197271 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-6806967 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-8955030 (Reactome)
AdoHcyArrowR-HSA-5359451 (Reactome)
AdoMetR-HSA-5359451 (Reactome)
BST1 dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-8870346 (Reactome)
CARKDmim-catalysisR-HSA-6806967 (Reactome)
CD38mim-catalysisR-HSA-8938076 (Reactome)
CO2ArrowR-HSA-197268 (Reactome)
H+ArrowR-HSA-6806967 (Reactome)
H+ArrowR-HSA-6809287 (Reactome)
H+ArrowR-HSA-8869606 (Reactome)
H+ArrowR-HSA-8869607 (Reactome)
H+ArrowR-HSA-8869627 (Reactome)
H+ArrowR-HSA-8869633 (Reactome)
H+ArrowR-HSA-8870346 (Reactome)
H+ArrowR-HSA-8938076 (Reactome)
H+ArrowR-HSA-8955030 (Reactome)
H+R-HSA-197186 (Reactome)
H+R-HSA-197268 (Reactome)
H+R-HSA-2309773 (Reactome)
H+R-HSA-8956458 (Reactome)
H2O2ArrowR-HSA-8956458 (Reactome)
H2OArrowR-HSA-197187 (Reactome)
H2OArrowR-HSA-2309773 (Reactome)
H2OR-HSA-197271 (Reactome)
H2OR-HSA-6809287 (Reactome)
H2OR-HSA-8870346 (Reactome)
H2OR-HSA-8938076 (Reactome)
H2OR-HSA-8940070 (Reactome)
H2OR-HSA-8940074 (Reactome)
L-GlnR-HSA-197271 (Reactome)
L-GluArrowR-HSA-197271 (Reactome)
MNAArrowR-HSA-2309773 (Reactome)
MNAArrowR-HSA-5359451 (Reactome)
Mg2+ArrowR-HSA-197186 (Reactome)
NAADArrowR-HSA-197235 (Reactome)
NAADArrowR-HSA-200474 (Reactome)
NAADArrowR-HSA-200512 (Reactome)
NAADR-HSA-197271 (Reactome)
NAD+ArrowR-HSA-197271 (Reactome)
NAD+ArrowR-HSA-8939959 (Reactome)
NAD+ArrowR-HSA-8956458 (Reactome)
NAD+R-HSA-197198 (Reactome)
NAD+R-HSA-8870346 (Reactome)
NAD+R-HSA-8938073 (Reactome)
NAD+R-HSA-8938076 (Reactome)
NAD+R-HSA-8940070 (Reactome)
NAD+R-HSA-8955030 (Reactome)
NADHR-HSA-6809287 (Reactome)
NADK2 dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-8955030 (Reactome)
NADK:Zn2+ tetramermim-catalysisR-HSA-197198 (Reactome)
NADP+ArrowR-HSA-197198 (Reactome)
NADP+ArrowR-HSA-8955030 (Reactome)
NADPHArrowR-HSA-6806967 (Reactome)
NADSYN1 hexamermim-catalysisR-HSA-197271 (Reactome)
NAMArrowR-HSA-8870346 (Reactome)
NAMArrowR-HSA-8938073 (Reactome)
NAMArrowR-HSA-8938076 (Reactome)
NAMNArrowR-HSA-197186 (Reactome)
NAMNArrowR-HSA-197250 (Reactome)
NAMNArrowR-HSA-197268 (Reactome)
NAMNArrowR-HSA-8869606 (Reactome)
NAMNArrowR-HSA-8869607 (Reactome)
NAMNR-HSA-197235 (Reactome)
NAMNR-HSA-200474 (Reactome)
NAMNR-HSA-200512 (Reactome)
NAMPTmim-catalysisR-HSA-197250 (Reactome)
NAMR-HSA-197250 (Reactome)
NAMR-HSA-5359451 (Reactome)
NAPRT1 dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-197186 (Reactome)
NARR-HSA-8869606 (Reactome)
NARR-HSA-8869607 (Reactome)
NCAArrowR-HSA-8869603 (Reactome)
NCAR-HSA-197186 (Reactome)
NCAR-HSA-8869603 (Reactome)
NMNAT2:Mg2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-197235 (Reactome)
NMNAT2:Mg2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-8939959 (Reactome)
NMNArrowR-HSA-8869627 (Reactome)
NMNArrowR-HSA-8869633 (Reactome)
NMNArrowR-HSA-8940070 (Reactome)
NMNHArrowR-HSA-6809287 (Reactome)
NMNR-HSA-8939959 (Reactome)
NMNR-HSA-8940074 (Reactome)
NMRK1mim-catalysisR-HSA-8869606 (Reactome)
NMRK1mim-catalysisR-HSA-8869633 (Reactome)
NMRK2mim-catalysisR-HSA-8869607 (Reactome)
NMRK2mim-catalysisR-HSA-8869627 (Reactome)
NNMTmim-catalysisR-HSA-5359451 (Reactome)
NRNAMArrowR-HSA-8940074 (Reactome)
NRR-HSA-8869627 (Reactome)
NRR-HSA-8869633 (Reactome)
NT5E:Zn2+ dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-8940070 (Reactome)
NT5E:Zn2+ dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-8940074 (Reactome)
NUDT12mim-catalysisR-HSA-6809287 (Reactome)
Na+ArrowR-HSA-429749 (Reactome)
Na+R-HSA-429749 (Reactome)
O2R-HSA-8956458 (Reactome)
PARPsmim-catalysisR-HSA-8938073 (Reactome)
PGG2R-HSA-2309773 (Reactome)
PGH2ArrowR-HSA-2309773 (Reactome)
PGH2R-HSA-76496 (Reactome)
PGI2ArrowR-HSA-76496 (Reactome)
PPi(3-)ArrowR-HSA-197235 (Reactome)
PPi(3-)ArrowR-HSA-200474 (Reactome)
PPi(3-)ArrowR-HSA-200512 (Reactome)
PPi(3-)ArrowR-HSA-8939959 (Reactome)
PPiArrowR-HSA-197186 (Reactome)
PPiArrowR-HSA-197250 (Reactome)
PPiArrowR-HSA-197268 (Reactome)
PPiArrowR-HSA-197271 (Reactome)
PRPPR-HSA-197186 (Reactome)
PRPPR-HSA-197250 (Reactome)
PRPPR-HSA-197268 (Reactome)
PTGIS,CYP8B1mim-catalysisR-HSA-76496 (Reactome)
PTGS2 dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-2309773 (Reactome)
PiArrowR-HSA-6806967 (Reactome)
PiArrowR-HSA-8940070 (Reactome)
PiArrowR-HSA-8940074 (Reactome)
QPRTmim-catalysisR-HSA-197268 (Reactome)
QUINArrowR-HSA-197187 (Reactome)
QUINR-HSA-197268 (Reactome)
R-HSA-197186 (Reactome) Cytosolic nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NaPRT) catalyzes the Mg++-dependent reaction of nicotinate and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate to form nicotinate mononucleotide (NaMN, nicotinate D-ribonucleotide) and pyrophosphate. The active form of the enzyme is a homodimer (Preiss and Handler 1958; Niedel and Dietrich 1973; Hara et al. 2007).
R-HSA-197187 (Reactome) Cytosolic 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde reacts non-enzymatically to form quinolinate and water (Fukuoka et al. 1998).
R-HSA-197198 (Reactome) Cytosolic NAD+ kinase (NADK) catalyses the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to NAD+, forming NADP+. This is the only way to generate NADP+ in all living organisms. NADK is tetrameric and requires one divalent metal such as Zn2+ per subunit to function correctly (Lerner et al. 2004).
R-HSA-197235 (Reactome) NMNAT2 catalyzes the reaction of nicotinate D-ribonucleotide and ATP to form deamino-NAD+ (nicotinate adenine dinucleotide) and pyrophosphate (Sorci et al. 2007). The active form of the enzyme is a monomer in vitro; Mg2+ is required for activity (Raffaelli et al. 2002; Sorci et al. 2007). Although the predicted amino acid sequence of the enzyme lacks an obvious signal sequence or transmembrane domain (Yalowitz et al. 2004), recombinant FLAG-tagged protein expressed in HeLa cells localizes predominantly to the Golgi apparatus (Berger et al. 2005). Its localization within the Golgi apparatus is unknown and the annotation here is based on the plausible but speculative assumption that the enzyme is associated with the Gogi membrane and accessible from the cytosol. Immunostaining studies indicate that the protein is abundant in Islets of Langerhans and in several regions of the brain (Yalowitz et al. 2004).
R-HSA-197250 (Reactome) Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NamPRT) catalyzes the condensation of nicotinamide with 5- phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide (NMN), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of NAD. It is the rate limiting component in the mammalian NAD biosynthesis pathway.
R-HSA-197268 (Reactome) The enzyme, nicotinate nucleotide pyrophosphorylase, is specific for quinolinate. Its activity is strictly dependent on Mg2+ ions being present. A phosphoribosyl group is transferred to quinolinate to form nicotinate D-ribonucleotide. This reaction represents another rate-limiting step of the pathway from tryptophan to NAD+.
R-HSA-197271 (Reactome) NAD synthases 1 and 2 (NADSYN1 and NADSYN2) catalyse the final step in the biosynthesis of NAD+, both in de novo synthesis and in the salvage pathway. The enzymes makes use of an amide donor in the reaction. NADSYNs exist as a homohexamers in the cytosol. The major difference between the two forms is that NADSYN1 appears to be glutamine-dependent whereas NADSYN2 is strictly ammonia-dependent (Hara et al. 2003).
R-HSA-200474 (Reactome) NMNAT3 catalyzes the reaction of nicotinate D-ribonucleotide and ATP to form deamino-NAD+ (nicotinate adenine dinucleotide) and pyrophosphate (Sorci et al. 2007). The active form of the enzyme is a tetramer in vitro (Zhang et al. 2003). Recombinant FLAG-tagged protein expressed in HeLa cells localizes both to the cytosol and to mitochondria (Berger et al. 2005). The cytosolic protein is annotated here.
R-HSA-200512 (Reactome) NMNAT1 catalyzes the reaction of nicotinate D-ribonucleotide and ATP to form deamino-NAD+ (nicotinate adenine dinucleotide) and pyrophosphate (Schweiger et al. 2001). The active form of the enzyme in vitro is a hexamer (Zhou et al. 2002), and its activity is substantially greater in the presence of Zn++ than of Mg++ (Sorci et al. 2007). The predicted amino acid sequence of the enzyme contains a nuclear localization domain and the protein is observed to localize to the nucleus (Schweiger et al. 2001; Berger et al. 2005).
R-HSA-2309773 (Reactome) Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PTGS2) exhibits a dual catalytic activity, a cyclooxygenase and a peroxidase. The peroxidase function converts prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) via a two-electron reduction (Hamberg et al. 1973, Hla & Neilson 1992, Swinney et al. 1997, Barnett et al. 1994).
R-HSA-429749 (Reactome) The human tumour suppressor gene SLC5A8 encodes sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1, SMCT1 (also called AIT) and is abundantly expressed in the colon (Coady et al. 2004, Myauchi et al. 2004). When the human protein is expressed in Xenopus oocytes, it was found to transport small monocarboxylates and carboxylate drugs, co-transporting Na+ ions electrogenically (3 Na+ ions co-transported with 1 carboxylate).
R-HSA-5359451 (Reactome) Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a cytosolic protein which catalyses the N-methylation of nicotinamide (NAM aka vitamin B3) and other pyridines (Aksoy et al. 1994, 1995). It is mainly expressed in the liver and to a lesser extent in the kidney, lung, skeletal muscle, placenta and heart. NAM is a precursor for NAD+, an important cofactor in cellular redox states and energy metabolism. NNMT methylates NAM using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor to form 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA). Kraus et al. found Nnmt expression is increased in white adipose tissue and liver of obese and diabetic mice. An Nnmt knockdown stategy could protect against diet-induced obesity by increasing cellular energy expenditure thus could be a target for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes (Kraus et al. 2014). Experiments on rats with thrombolytic models suggest endogenous MNA could be a stimulator of the COX2/PGI2 pathway and thus regulate an anti-thrombotic effect (Chlopicki et al. 2007).
R-HSA-6806966 (Reactome) NAD(P)H-hydrate epimerase (APOA1BP) is a homodimeric protein located in the mitochondrion (Ritter et al. 2002). Mammalian APOA1BP is able to mediate the epimerisation of the R-form of NAD(P)HX, a damaged form of NAD(P)H that is a result of enzymatic or heat-dependent hydration (Marbaix et al. 2011). This is a prerequisite for the S-specific NAD(P)H-hydrate dehydratase to allow the repair of both epimers of NAD(P)HX.
R-HSA-6806967 (Reactome) Human ATP-dependent (S)-NAD(P)H-hydrate dehydratase (CARKD) is thought to catalyze the dehydration, and thus repair, of the S-form of NAD(P)HX, a damaged form of NAD(P)H that is a result of enzymatic or heat-dependent hydration. The human event is deduced on the basis of evidence from mouse experiments (Marbaix et al. 2011).
R-HSA-6809287 (Reactome) The human nudix hydrolase peroxisomal NADH pyrophosphatase (NUDT12) shows in vitro hydrolase activity towards NAD(P)H, NAD(P)+, ADP-ribose and diadenosine triphosphate. Like other NADH diphosphatases of the Nudix family, NUDT12 has a marked substrate preference for reduced nicotinamide nucleotides. It can hydrolyse NAD(H) to the nicotinamide mononucleotide NMN(H) and may act to regulate the concentration of peroxisomal nicotinamide nucleotide cofactors required for oxidative metabolism here (Abdelraheim et al. 2003).
R-HSA-76496 (Reactome) Prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS) aka CYP8A1 mediates the isomerisation of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) aka prostacyclin (Wada et al. 2004). This reaction is not coupled with any P450 reductase proteins nor consumes NADPH. Experiments on rats with thrombolytic models suggest endogenous MNA could be a stimulator of the COX2/PGI2 pathway and thus regulate an anti-thrombotic effect (Chlopicki et al. 2007).
R-HSA-8869603 (Reactome) Plasma membrane-associated SLC22A13 (solute carrier family 22 member 13, also known as OCTL3 - organic cation transporter-like 3) mediates the uptake of extracellular nicotinate (NCA). The protein is especially abundant in the kidney but is widely expressed in tissues of the body (Bahn et al. 2008).
R-HSA-8869606 (Reactome) NMRK1 (nicotinamide riboside kinase 1) catalyzes the reaction of NAR (N-ribosylnicotinate) and ATP to yield NAMN (beta-nicotinate D-ribonucleotide), ADP, and H+ (Tempel et al. 2007). The reaction is annotated with ATP(4-), the major ionized form of ATP at pH 7.2 (Stockbridge & Wolfenden 2009), as the phosphate donor. NMRK1 is a cytosolic enzyme (Nikiforov et al. 2011).
R-HSA-8869607 (Reactome) NMRK2 (nicotinamide riboside kinase 2) catalyzes the reaction of NAR (N-ribosylnicotinate) and ATP to yield NAMN (beta-nicotinate D-ribonucleotide), ADP, and H+ (Tempel et al. 2007). The reaction is annotated with ATP(4-), the major ionized form of ATP at pH 7.2 (Stockbridge & Wolfenden 2009), as the phosphate donor. NMRK2 is a cytosolic enzyme (Nikiforov et al. 2011), localized predominantly in myocytes (Li et al. 1999).
R-HSA-8869627 (Reactome) NMRK2 (nicotinamide riboside kinase 2) catalyzes the reaction of NR (N-ribosylnicotinamide) and ATP to yield NMN (beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide), ADP, and H+ (Bieganowsky & Brenner 2004; Tempel et al. 2007). The reaction is annotated with ATP(4-), the major ionized form of ATP at pH 7.2 (Stockbridge & Wolfenden 2009), as the phosphate donor. NMRK2 is a cytosolic enzyme (Nikiforov et al. 2011), localized predominantly in myocytes (Li et al. 1999).
R-HSA-8869633 (Reactome) NMRK1 (nicotinamide riboside kinase 1) catalyzes the reaction of NR (N-ribosylnicotinamide) and ATP to yield NMN (beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide), ADP, and H+. The enzyme is also active with GTP as a phosphate donor (not annotated here) (Bieganowsky & Brenner 2004; Sasiak & Saunders 1996; Tempel et al. 2007). The reaction is annotated with ATP(4-), the major ionized form of ATP at pH 7.2 (Stockbridge & Wolfenden 2009), as the phosphate donor. NMRK1 is a cytosolic enzyme (Nikiforov et al. 2011).
R-HSA-8870346 (Reactome) BST1 dimer associated with the plasma membrane catalyzes the hydrolysis of extracellular NAD+ to yield NAM and ADP-ribose (Yamamoto-Katayama et al. 2002).
R-HSA-8938073 (Reactome) Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyse the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation posttranslational modification of proteins. At least 18 human members share homology with the catalytic domain of the founding member, PARP1. PARPs cleave the glycosidic bond of NAD+ between nicotinamide (NAM) and ribose followed by the covalent modification of mainly glutamate residues on acceptor proteins with an ADP-ribosyl unit, with subsequent ADP-ribosyl unit additions linked by glycosidic ribose-ribose bonds. NAM can be utilised in the NAD+ regeneration process. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is important in many biological processess including DNA repair, regulation of chromosome structure, transcriptional regulation, mitosis and apoptosis. PARPs can localise to either the cytosol or the nucleus. The cytosolic PARPs described here are PARP9, PARP10 and PARP16 (Yan et al. 2013, Yu et al. 2005, Di Paolo et al. 2012). PARP4, PARP6, PARP8 and PARP14 may also be located in the cytosol with the same functionality.
R-HSA-8938076 (Reactome) ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase 1 (CD38) is a multifunctional enzyme that can catalyse the hydrolysis of NAD+ to form linear ADP-ribose (ADP-D-ribose) and/or cyclization of NAD+ forming cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) via a two-step enzymatic reaction. The first common step involves the cleavage of the nicotinamide group of NAD+. The reaction intermediate can either be hydrolysed to form ADP-D-ribose or cyclized to form cADPR (Lee et al. 1995, Moreschi et al. 2006). CD38 can also produce nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) (Lee et al. 1999). Both cADPR and NAADP are established second messengers for mobilising intracellular Ca2+ stores (Lee 2012). The reaction annotated here describes the hydrolysis of NAD+ to form ADP-D-ribose.
R-HSA-8939959 (Reactome) NMNAT2 catalyzes the reaction of nicotinate D-ribonucleotide and ATP to form deamino-NAD+ (nicotinate adenine dinucleotide) and pyrophosphate (Sorci et al. 2007). The active form of the enzyme is a monomer in vitro; Mg2+ is required for activity (Raffaelli et al. 2002; Sorci et al. 2007). Although the predicted amino acid sequence of the enzyme lacks an obvious signal sequence or transmembrane domain (Yalowitz et al. 2004), recombinant FLAG-tagged protein expressed in HeLa cells localizes predominantly to the Golgi apparatus (Berger et al. 2005). Its localization within the Golgi apparatus is unknown and the annotation here is based on the plausible but speculative assumption that the enzyme is associated with the Gogi membrane and accessible from the cytosol. Immunostaining studies indicate that the protein is abundant in Islets of Langerhans and in several regions of the brain (Yalowitz et al. 2004).
R-HSA-8940070 (Reactome) 5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) is able to hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides. It displays a broad specificity, acting on mono- or di-nucleotide nicotinamides and different adenosine phosphates, with maximal activity on 5'-adenosine monophosphate. Human NT5E can hydrolyse both NAD+ and NMN, suggesting a role in NAD metabolism (Garavaglia et al. 2012). NT5E is a glycolipid-anchored plasma membrane enzyme (Misumi et al. 1990) that is active in dimeric form and requires one zinc ion per subunit (Zimmermann 1992).
R-HSA-8940074 (Reactome) 5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) is able to hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides. It displays a broad specificity, acting on mono- or di-nucleotide nicotinamides and different adenosine phosphates, with maximal activity on 5'-adenosine monophosphate. Human NT5E can hydrolyse both NAD+ and NMN, suggesting a role in NAD metabolism (Garavaglia et al. 2012). NT5E is a glycolipid-anchored plasma membrane enzyme (Misumi et al. 1990) that is active in dimeric form and requires one zinc ion per subunit (Zimmermann 1992).
R-HSA-8955030 (Reactome) NAD kinase is the sole NADP(+) biosynthetic enzyme. A cytosolic form of NAD kinase is already characterised but recently, a mitochondrial form has been found to exist. Mitochondrial NAD kinase 2 (NADK2 aka C5orf33, MNADK, NADKD1) uses ATP to phosphorylate NAD+ to NADP+ (Ohashi et al. 2012). NADK2 is ubiquitously expressed and is more abundant than its cytosolic counterpart. Defects in NADK2 can cause 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency (DECRD), a rare, autosomal recessive, inborn error of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysine metabolism, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (Houten et al. 2014).
R-HSA-8956458 (Reactome) Renalase (RNLS) is a flavoprotein that is secreted by the kidney and circulates in blood from where it can regulate blood pressure, regulate sodium and phosphate excretion and display cardioprotectivity through a mechanism which is not understood to date. RNLS, using FAD as cofactor, can oxidise isomeric forms of beta-NAD(P)H that can arise either by nonspecific reduction of beta-NAD(P)+ or by tautomerisation of beta-NAD(P)H (Milani et al. 2011, Beaupre et al. 2015). These forms are 1,2- and 1,6-dihydroNAD(P) (dh-beta-NAD(P)) and are potent inhibitors of primary metabolism dehydrogenases. RNLS may thus play a role in eliminating these isomeric forms which threaten normal respiratory activity.
R-NADPHXR-HSA-6806966 (Reactome)
RNLS:FADmim-catalysisR-HSA-8956458 (Reactome)
S-NADPHXArrowR-HSA-6806966 (Reactome)
S-NADPHXR-HSA-6806967 (Reactome)
SLC22A13mim-catalysisR-HSA-8869603 (Reactome)
SLC5A8mim-catalysisR-HSA-429749 (Reactome)
adenosine 5'-monophosphateR-HSA-6809287 (Reactome)
dh-beta-NADR-HSA-8956458 (Reactome)
e-R-HSA-2309773 (Reactome)
monocarboxylates

transported by

SLC5A8
ArrowR-HSA-429749 (Reactome)
monocarboxylates

transported by

SLC5A8
R-HSA-429749 (Reactome)
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