Glucose metabolism (Homo sapiens)

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45, 629930, 46, 562833, 48, 61, 70, 85...2431, 6710450, 51, 5983, 9247, 756, 40, 57, 69, 713716, 53, 6620, 36, 52, 93, 9410968, 23, 26, 782136, 932, 35, 10239, 83, 927, 14, 64, 821, 4, 5, 38, 7327, 906, 69, 7113, 222824, 41, 49, 68, 91...3442, 547, 6411, 17, 29, 72, 74...12, 9811, 17, 72, 74815832, 76, 8744, 63, 79, 80, 84...30, 46152, 35, 10228, 376555, 672819, 9725, 60, 89, 100cytosolendoplasmic reticulum lumennucleoplasmmitochondrial matrixGOT1 dimerPGK1 GCK PKA catalyticsubunitPGK complexesBPGM CITL-AspADPNUP155 NUPL1-2 ATP2OGGAPDHS G6PCO2OAPiADPPFKFB3 NUP62 GNPDA1,2 hexamersATPPFKFB2 phosphoPFKFB1 dimerPXLP-GOT2 PC NUP88 NUP153 Mg2+ CITNUP85 GA3PPFKFB1 H+GAPDH tetramersSLC37A2-2 PCK2PiSLC25A12,13GOT2 dimerPYRPPP2R1A GCKR 2,3BPGGCK H2ONUPL2 PGM2L1 H2OADPGK:Mg2+GCKRMg2+ PKM-2 NADHD-Fructose1,6-bisphosphatePEPPFKP G6PCALDOA GlcNUP98-5 GCK SLC37A43PGMg2+ GDPPFKL GNPDA1 GlcPiH2OSLC25A13 PKLR-2 GPI ALDOC ATPATPPRKACB H+D-Fructose2,6-bisphosphateAMPPPP2R5D G1,6BPNUP98-4 PiNUP93 ATPATPAc-CoAGCKRHK3 FBP tetramerMg2+ NAD+PiPPP2R1B PFKM POM121C GCK1:GKRP complexMALNUP37 GlycerolPiGNPDA2 AMPNup45 CO22PGMg2+ NUP98-3 GTPpyruvate carboxylaseholoenzymeTPI1 dimerGDPAMPNuclear Pore Complex(NPC)p-S33-PFKFB1 PGAM dimersATPH2OPGAM1 PGK2 ENO3 malate dehydrogenase1 dimerADPPGAM2 ADPGK GTPH2OGCKGPI dimerGlcN6PFru 1-PPPP2CB TPI1 FBP1 L-GluNAD+pyruvate kinasetetramerSor6PPiOAAENO2 OANADHH+Mg2+ Btn NUP160 glucokinase andhexokinases2OGPEPENO1 Mg2+ PFKFB dimersMDH2 dimerAc-CoAGAPDH D-Fructose1,6-bisphosphatePiMDH2 FBP2 SEH1L-2 ADPPRKACG CITNUP188 NDC1 G6PSLC25A11 homodimerGCKR HK2 Fru(6)PAAAS GCKGCK1:GKRP complexADPPiGOT1 PXLP SLC37A1 H+PFKFB4 PGP:Mg2+ dimerPiPKLR-1 SLC25A10NADHRAE1 ADPK+ Glcenolase dimerGlcPGM2L1:Mg2+NUP205 Fru(6)PBPGM dimerALDOB ATPPP2A-ABdeltaCcomplexSLC25A12 NUP133 ADPNUP54 NUP210 PGP L-GluDHAPMDH1 SLC25A1NUP35 PKM-1 ADPH2OGlcL-AspPRKACA ATPADPMn2+ NUP214 TPR NAD+PYRG6PC3SLC37A1,2NH4+RANBP2 H2OADPMAL1,3BPGATPPFKFB1 dimerCO2HK1 SLC25A11 NUP50 aldolase tetramerG6PC2H2OPPP2CA PFK tetramerNUP107 POM121 NUP43 G6PPFKFB1 PCK1cAMP99721971411, 741, 4, 5, 38, 7310319, 97557520, 52653, 18, 43, 88


Glucose is the major form in which dietary sugars are made available to cells of the human body. Its breakdown is a major source of energy for all cells, and is essential for the brain and red blood cells. Glucose utilization begins with its uptake by cells and conversion to glucose 6-phosphate, which cannot traverse the cell membrane. Fates open to cytosolic glucose 6-phosphate include glycolysis to yield pyruvate, glycogen synthesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. In some tissues, notably the liver and kidney, glucose 6-phosphate can be synthesized from pyruvate by the pathway of gluconeogenesis. View original pathway at:Reactome.


Pathway is converted from Reactome ID: 70326
Reactome version: 66
Reactome Author 
Reactome Author: Schmidt, Esther

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  102. Bisaccia F, Zara V, Capobianco L, Iacobazzi V, Mazzeo M, Palmieri F.; ''The formation of a disulfide cross-link between the two subunits demonstrates the dimeric structure of the mitochondrial oxoglutarate carrier.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  103. Pilkis SJ, el-Maghrabi MR, Claus TH.; ''Hormonal regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycolysis.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  104. van Schaftingen E, Gerin I.; ''The glucose-6-phosphatase system.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  105. Lee J, Kim HK, Han YM, Kim J.; ''Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) interacts and cooperates with Oct-4 in regulating transcription.''; PubMed Europe PMC


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101559view11:43, 1 November 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 66
101095view21:26, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 65
100624view20:00, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 64
100175view16:45, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 63
99725view15:12, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62 (2nd attempt)
99299view12:46, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62
93508view11:25, 9 August 2017ReactomeTeamNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
1,3BPGMetaboliteCHEBI:16001 (ChEBI)
2,3BPGMetaboliteCHEBI:19324 (ChEBI)
2OGMetaboliteCHEBI:30915 (ChEBI)
2PGMetaboliteCHEBI:17835 (ChEBI)
3PGMetaboliteCHEBI:17794 (ChEBI)
AAAS ProteinQ9NRG9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADPMetaboliteCHEBI:16761 (ChEBI)
ADPGK ProteinQ9BRR6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADPGK:Mg2+ComplexR-HSA-5696043 (Reactome)
ALDOA ProteinP04075 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ALDOB ProteinP05062 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ALDOC ProteinP09972 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
AMPMetaboliteCHEBI:16027 (ChEBI)
ATPMetaboliteCHEBI:15422 (ChEBI)
Ac-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15351 (ChEBI)
BPGM ProteinP07738 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BPGM dimerComplexR-HSA-6798333 (Reactome)
Btn MetaboliteCHEBI:15956 (ChEBI)
CITMetaboliteCHEBI:30769 (ChEBI)
CO2MetaboliteCHEBI:16526 (ChEBI)
D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:16905 (ChEBI)
D-Fructose 2,6-bisphosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:28602 (ChEBI)
DHAPMetaboliteCHEBI:16108 (ChEBI)
ENO1 ProteinP06733 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ENO2 ProteinP09104 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ENO3 ProteinP13929 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
FBP tetramerComplexR-HSA-372874 (Reactome)
FBP1 ProteinP09467 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
FBP2 ProteinO00757 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Fru 1-PMetaboliteCHEBI:18105 (ChEBI)
Fru(6)PMetaboliteCHEBI:15946 (ChEBI)
G1,6BPMetaboliteCHEBI:18148 (ChEBI)
G6PC2ProteinQ9NQR9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
G6PC3ProteinQ9BUM1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
G6PMetaboliteCHEBI:17665 (ChEBI)
G6PCProteinP35575 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GA3PMetaboliteCHEBI:29052 (ChEBI)
GAPDH ProteinP04406 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) While there are multiple human glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like pseudogenes, there is only one glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expressed in somatic tissue (Benham and Povey 1989). Consistent with this conclusion, the homogeneous enzymes purified from various human tissues had indistinguishable physical and immunochemical properties (Heinz and Freimuller 1982), and studies of human erythrocytes of various ages suggested that variant forms of the enzyme arise as a result of post-translational modifications (Edwards et al. 1976). There is, however, an authentic second isoform of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase whose expression is confined to spermatogenic cells of the testis (Welch et al. 2000).
GAPDH tetramersComplexR-HSA-372871 (Reactome)
GAPDHS ProteinO14556 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GCK ProteinP35557 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GCK1:GKRP complexComplexR-HSA-170804 (Reactome)
GCK1:GKRP complexComplexR-HSA-170827 (Reactome)
GCKProteinP35557 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GCKR ProteinQ14397 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GCKRProteinQ14397 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GDPMetaboliteCHEBI:17552 (ChEBI)
GNPDA1 ProteinP46926 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GNPDA1,2 hexamersComplexR-HSA-6799602 (Reactome)
GNPDA2 ProteinQ8TDQ7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GOT1 ProteinP17174 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GOT1 dimerComplexR-HSA-70579 (Reactome)
GOT2 dimerComplexR-HSA-70594 (Reactome)
GPI ProteinP06744 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GPI dimerComplexR-HSA-70469 (Reactome)
GTPMetaboliteCHEBI:15996 (ChEBI)
GlcMetaboliteCHEBI:17925 (ChEBI)
GlcN6PMetaboliteCHEBI:15873 (ChEBI)
GlycerolMetaboliteCHEBI:17754 (ChEBI)
H+MetaboliteCHEBI:15378 (ChEBI)
H2OMetaboliteCHEBI:15377 (ChEBI)
HK1 ProteinP19367 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
HK2 ProteinP52789 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
HK3 ProteinP52790 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
K+ MetaboliteCHEBI:29103 (ChEBI)
L-AspMetaboliteCHEBI:29991 (ChEBI)
L-GluMetaboliteCHEBI:29985 (ChEBI)
MALMetaboliteCHEBI:30797 (ChEBI)
MDH1 ProteinP40925 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
MDH2 ProteinP40926 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
MDH2 dimerComplexR-HSA-198511 (Reactome)
Mg2+ MetaboliteCHEBI:18420 (ChEBI)
Mn2+ MetaboliteCHEBI:29035 (ChEBI)
NAD+MetaboliteCHEBI:15846 (ChEBI)
NADHMetaboliteCHEBI:16908 (ChEBI)
NDC1 ProteinQ9BTX1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NH4+MetaboliteCHEBI:28938 (ChEBI)
NUP107 ProteinP57740 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP133 ProteinQ8WUM0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP153 ProteinP49790 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP155 ProteinO75694 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP160 ProteinQ12769 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP188 ProteinQ5SRE5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP205 ProteinQ92621 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP210 ProteinQ8TEM1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP214 ProteinP35658 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP35 ProteinQ8NFH5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP37 ProteinQ8NFH4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP43 ProteinQ8NFH3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP50 ProteinQ9UKX7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP54 ProteinQ7Z3B4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP62 ProteinP37198 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP85 ProteinQ9BW27 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP88 ProteinQ99567 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP93 ProteinQ8N1F7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP98-3 ProteinP52948-3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP98-4 ProteinP52948-4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUP98-5 ProteinP52948-5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUPL1-2 ProteinQ9BVL2-1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NUPL2 ProteinO15504 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC)ComplexR-HSA-157689 (Reactome)
Nup45 ProteinQ9BVL2-2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
OAAMetaboliteCHEBI:30744 (ChEBI)
OAMetaboliteCHEBI:30744 (ChEBI)
PC ProteinP11498 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PCK1ProteinP35558 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PCK2ProteinQ16822 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PEPMetaboliteCHEBI:18021 (ChEBI)
PFK tetramerComplexR-HSA-179517 (Reactome)
PFKFB dimersComplexR-HSA-372870 (Reactome)
PFKFB1 ProteinP16118 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PFKFB1 dimerComplexR-HSA-71786 (Reactome)
PFKFB2 ProteinO60825 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PFKFB3 ProteinQ16875 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PFKFB4 ProteinQ16877 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PFKL ProteinP17858 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PFKM ProteinP08237 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PFKP ProteinQ01813 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PGAM dimersComplexR-HSA-179494 (Reactome)
PGAM1 ProteinP18669 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PGAM2 ProteinP15259 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PGK complexesComplexR-HSA-6807624 (Reactome)
PGK1 ProteinP00558 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PGK2 ProteinP07205 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PGM2L1 ProteinQ6PCE3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PGM2L1:Mg2+ComplexR-HSA-8955670 (Reactome)
PGP ProteinA6NDG6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PGP:Mg2+ dimerComplexR-HSA-8955798 (Reactome)
PKA catalytic subunitComplexR-HSA-111920 (Reactome)
PKLR-1 ProteinP30613-1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PKLR-2 ProteinP30613-2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PKM-1 ProteinP14618-1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PKM-2 ProteinP14618-2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
POM121 ProteinQ96HA1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
POM121C ProteinA8CG34 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PP2A-ABdeltaC complexComplexR-HSA-165961 (Reactome)
PPP2CA ProteinP67775 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PPP2CB ProteinP62714 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PPP2R1A ProteinP30153 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PPP2R1B ProteinP30154 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PPP2R5D ProteinQ14738 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PRKACA ProteinP17612 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PRKACB ProteinP22694 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PRKACG ProteinP22612 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PXLP MetaboliteCHEBI:18405 (ChEBI)
PXLP-GOT2 ProteinP00505 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PYRMetaboliteCHEBI:32816 (ChEBI)
PiMetaboliteCHEBI:18367 (ChEBI)
RAE1 ProteinP78406 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
RANBP2 ProteinP49792 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SEH1L-2 ProteinQ96EE3-2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC25A10ProteinQ9UBX3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC25A11 ProteinQ02978 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC25A11 homodimerComplexR-HSA-376856 (Reactome)
SLC25A12 ProteinO75746 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC25A12,13ComplexR-HSA-372469 (Reactome)
SLC25A13 ProteinQ9UJS0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC25A1ProteinP53007 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC37A1 ProteinP57057 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC37A1,2ComplexR-HSA-3257118 (Reactome)
SLC37A2-2 ProteinQ8TED4-2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC37A4ProteinO43826 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Sor6PMetaboliteCHEBI:17044 (ChEBI)
TPI1 ProteinP60174 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TPI1 dimerComplexR-HSA-70452 (Reactome)
TPR ProteinP12270 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
aldolase tetramerComplexR-HSA-179508 (Reactome)
cAMPMetaboliteCHEBI:17489 (ChEBI)
enolase dimerComplexR-HSA-179497 (Reactome)
glucokinase and hexokinasesComplexR-HSA-450097 (Reactome)
malate dehydrogenase 1 dimerComplexR-HSA-198437 (Reactome)
p-S33-PFKFB1 ProteinP16118 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
phosphoPFKFB1 dimerComplexR-HSA-163745 (Reactome)
pyruvate carboxylase holoenzymeComplexR-HSA-70499 (Reactome)
pyruvate kinase tetramerComplexR-HSA-450668 (Reactome)

Annotated Interactions

View all...
SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
1,3BPGArrowR-HSA-70449 (Reactome)
1,3BPGArrowR-HSA-70486 (Reactome)
1,3BPGR-HSA-6798335 (Reactome)
1,3BPGR-HSA-70482 (Reactome)
1,3BPGR-HSA-71850 (Reactome)
1,3BPGR-HSA-8955760 (Reactome)
2,3BPGArrowR-HSA-6798335 (Reactome)
2OGArrowR-HSA-198440 (Reactome)
2OGArrowR-HSA-376851 (Reactome)
2OGArrowR-HSA-70613 (Reactome)
2OGR-HSA-198440 (Reactome)