Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Beta-Oxidation (Homo sapiens)

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2, 4, 6, 413342, 45159, 16, 18, 25, 37...31, 4715334711, 17, 32, 38, 53471530, 40, 463342, 4542, 434742, 4542, 455, 7, 10, 14, 24...2049, 543313, 28332942, 433333153321, 4812, 23153342, 432222334719, 391, 3, 7, 8, 10...endoplasmic reticulum lumenmitochondrial matrixcytosolACOT2,9, THEM4,5dimerECI1 cis,cis-3,6-Dodecadienoyl-CoAPalmCoAHADHA ACADS FADHADHA PPANT-S112-NDUFAB1CoA-SHMYS-CoAadenosine5'-monophosphateCoA-SHATPOctanoyl-CoAACADS ACSM3 NADHH+H+ECHS1 hexamerACADL FAD6x(Btn-PCCA:PCCB)trans-Tetradec-2-enoyl-CoAACAA2 tetramerACBD6(S)-Hydroxydecanoyl-CoAAc-CoAATPAc-CoAHADH THEM5 FADH2ACADL FADH2ACBD7 LIN-CoAACADM PPiPCTPBH-CoASUCC-CoAFADH2Malonyl-CoAHADH Cytosolic ACOTs,THEM4CoA-SHTHEM4 Ac-CoA3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAH2ONAD+ACOT7L ECHS1 ACADM H2OCO2ECHS1 NADPHLCFA-CoA(S)-3-Hydroxytetradecanoyl-CoAacyl-CoANADHATPAc-CoABT-CoAH2OMECR dimerACAD11H2OECHS1 hexamer3OA-CoAHADH dimerACADVL dimer3-Oxododecanoyl-CoAACADL tetramer(S)-3-Hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoAL-MM-CoAtrans,cis-Lauro-2,6-dienoyl-CoAACOT11 H2OACADS tetramerH2OFADFADDBI FADH2TrifunctionalProteinNAD+MCATHADH dimer3-Oxooctanoyl-CoACoA-SHtdec2-CoAH+AdoCbl Btn-PCCA ACBD7 ACAA2 FADCrotonoyl-CoAMCFA-CoA ACA-CoAH2OFADNADH3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoAFADH2S-2MPDA-CoAHADHB H+ACOT2 NADP+CoA-SHH+2-trans-4-cis-decadienoyl-CoA(S)-3-Hydroxydodecanoyl-CoAAc-CoAAc-CoAACADM tetramerFADH2FADFADH2NAD+MUT TrifunctionalProteinDBI,ACBD7:MCFA-CoA,LCFA-CoAH+LCFA-CoA 3-Oxopalmitoyl-CoATrifunctionalProteinPROP-CoAACSM3,ACSM6FADMal-PPANT-S112-NDUFAB1ACOT1 2-trans-Dodecenoyl-CoATrifunctionalProteinS-2MDPDA-CoANAD+CoA-SHMECR Ac-CoAHX-CoAMCFAACOT7 DBI, (ACBD7)MCFA-CoA ACADM tetramerNADHMCFA-CoA MCFA HADHA FADFADH2LCFA ACADL LCFA-CoA adenosine5'-monophosphateCoA-SH3-trans-decenoyl-CoALCFA-CoA HADHB FADH+NAD+DECR1 tetramertrans-Oct-2-enoyl-CoAHADHB ACOT12 NADHTrifunctionalProteinACADS tetramerMCFA-CoANAD+(S)-Hydroxyhexanoyl-CoAFAD3HB-CoAFADH2MCFA-CoA, LCFA-CoANADHECHS1 hexamerTrifunctionalProteinNADHCoA-SHECHS1 NAD+H+FADFADH2HADHA NADHNADHMEMA-CoAMCFA FADH2Ac-CoADECR1 H+ECHS1 LCFA ECHS1 hexamerDEC-CoAPCCB ACOT13 CoA-SHHADHB PiMCEEtrans-Hexadec-2-enoyl-CoAH2O3-Oxodecanoyl-CoANADHACBD6:LCFA-CoADCI dimerHADHB ACBD6 4-cis-decenoyl-CoAH2OADPDBI MCFA-CoA, LCFA-CoACoA-SHACOT9 ACADVL BUTNAD+NAD+ACADL tetramerACADL tetramerLCFA-CoA LAU-CoALCFA-CoA ACSF2ACSM6 CoA-SHACAD10H2OMCFA, LCFAFADH2MCFA-CoA, LCFA-CoAECHS1 H+HADHB MCFA, LCFAMMAA PPiNAD+MCFA-CoA HADHA 2xMMAA:2xMUT:AdoCblHADH H2OHADHA H+DHB-CoAHADH dimerECHS1 hexamertrans-Hex-2-enoyl-CoA(S)-Hydroxyoctanoyl-CoA49, 54313030313140


Description

Beta-oxidation begins once fatty acids have been imported into the mitochondrial matrix by carnitine acyltransferases. The beta-oxidation spiral of fatty acids metabolism involves the repetitive removal of two carbon units from the fatty acyl chain. There are four steps to this process: oxidation, hydration, a second oxidation, and finally thiolysis. The last step releases the two-carbon acetyl-CoA and a ready primed acyl-CoA that takes another turn down the spiral. In total each turn of the beta-oxidation spiral produces one NADH, one FADH2, and one acetyl-CoA.

Further oxidation of acetyl-CoA via the tricarboxylic acid cycle generates additional FADH2 and NADH. All reduced cofactors are used by the mitochondrial electron transport chain to form ATP. The complete oxidation of a fatty acid molecule produces numerous ATP molecules. Palmitate, used as the model here, produces 129 ATPs.<p>Beta-oxidation pathways differ for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The beta-oxidation of saturated fatty acids requires four different enzymatic steps. Beta-oxidation produces and consumes intermediates with a trans configuration; unsaturated fatty acids that have bonds in the cis configuration require three separate enzymatic steps to prepare these molecules for the beta-oxidation pathway. View original pathway at:Reactome.</div>

Comments

Reactome-Converter 
Pathway is converted from Reactome ID: 77289
Reactome-version 
Reactome version: 66
Reactome Author 
Reactome Author: Gillespie, Marc E

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Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

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History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
101298view11:18, 1 November 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 66
100835view20:49, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 65
100376view19:24, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 64
99923view16:08, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 63
99478view14:40, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62 (2nd attempt)
99132view12:40, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62
93259view11:18, 9 August 2017ReactomeTeamNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
(S)-3-Hydroxydodecanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:27668 (ChEBI)
(S)-3-Hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:27402 (ChEBI)
(S)-3-Hydroxytetradecanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:27466 (ChEBI)
(S)-Hydroxydecanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28325 (ChEBI)
(S)-Hydroxyhexanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28276 (ChEBI)
(S)-Hydroxyoctanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28632 (ChEBI)
2-trans-4-cis-decadienoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:29119 (ChEBI)
2-trans-Dodecenoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15471 (ChEBI)
2xMMAA:2xMUT:AdoCblComplexR-HSA-3159272 (Reactome)
3-Oxodecanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28528 (ChEBI)
3-Oxododecanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:27868 (ChEBI)
3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:27648 (ChEBI)
3-Oxooctanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28264 (ChEBI)
3-Oxopalmitoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15491 (ChEBI)
3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28726 (ChEBI)
3-trans-decenoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:29126 (ChEBI)
3HB-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15453 (ChEBI)
3OA-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15489 (ChEBI)
4-cis-decenoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:29140 (ChEBI)
6x(Btn-PCCA:PCCB)ComplexR-HSA-71026 (Reactome)
ACA-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15345 (ChEBI)
ACAA2 ProteinP42765 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACAA2 tetramerComplexR-HSA-8874746 (Reactome)
ACAD10ProteinQ6JQN1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACAD11ProteinQ709F0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACADL ProteinP28330 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACADL tetramerComplexR-HSA-77258 (Reactome)
ACADM ProteinP11310 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACADM tetramerComplexR-HSA-77335 (Reactome)
ACADS ProteinP16219 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACADS tetramerComplexR-HSA-77316 (Reactome)
ACADVL ProteinP49748 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACADVL dimerComplexR-HSA-77279 (Reactome)
ACBD6 ProteinQ9BR61 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACBD6:LCFA-CoAComplexR-HSA-8848271 (Reactome)
ACBD6ProteinQ9BR61 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACBD7 ProteinQ8N6N7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACOT1 ProteinQ86TX2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACOT11 ProteinQ8WXI4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACOT12 ProteinQ8WYK0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACOT13 ProteinQ9NPJ3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACOT2 ProteinP49753 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACOT2,9, THEM4,5 dimerComplexR-HSA-5690051 (Reactome)
ACOT7 ProteinO00154 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACOT7L ProteinQ6ZUV0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACOT9 ProteinQ9Y305 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACSF2ProteinQ96CM8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACSM3 ProteinQ53FZ2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACSM3,ACSM6ComplexR-HSA-8875066 (Reactome)
ACSM6 ProteinQ6P461 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADPMetaboliteCHEBI:16761 (ChEBI)
ATPMetaboliteCHEBI:15422 (ChEBI)
Ac-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15351 (ChEBI)
AdoCbl MetaboliteCHEBI:18408 (ChEBI)
BH-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:65088 (ChEBI)
BT-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15517 (ChEBI)
BUTMetaboliteCHEBI:30772 (ChEBI)
Btn-PCCA ProteinP05165 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CO2MetaboliteCHEBI:16526 (ChEBI)
CoA-SHMetaboliteCHEBI:15346 (ChEBI)
Crotonoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15473 (ChEBI)
Cytosolic ACOTs, THEM4ComplexR-HSA-5690052 (Reactome)
DBI ProteinP07108 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
DBI, (ACBD7)ComplexR-HSA-8848239 (Reactome)
DBI,ACBD7:MCFA-CoA,LCFA-CoAComplexR-HSA-8848291 (Reactome)
DCI dimerComplexR-HSA-110060 (Reactome)
DEC-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28493 (ChEBI)
DECR1 ProteinQ16698 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
DECR1 tetramerComplexR-HSA-110061 (Reactome)
DHB-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:85880 (ChEBI)
ECHS1 ProteinP30084 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ECHS1 hexamerComplexR-HSA-71048 (Reactome)
ECI1 ProteinP42126 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
FADMetaboliteCHEBI:16238 (ChEBI)
FADH2MetaboliteCHEBI:17877 (ChEBI)
H+MetaboliteCHEBI:15378 (ChEBI)
H2OMetaboliteCHEBI:15377 (ChEBI)
HADH ProteinQ16836 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
HADH dimerComplexR-HSA-71052 (Reactome)
HADHA ProteinP40939 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
HADHB ProteinP55084 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
HX-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:27540 (ChEBI)
L-MM-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15465 (ChEBI)
LAU-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15521 (ChEBI)
LCFA MetaboliteCHEBI:15904 (ChEBI)
LCFA-CoA MetaboliteCHEBI:33184 (ChEBI)
LCFA-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:33184 (ChEBI)
LIN-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15530 (ChEBI)
MCATProteinQ8IVS2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
MCEEProteinQ96PE7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
MCFA MetaboliteCHEBI:59554 (ChEBI)
MCFA, LCFAComplexR-ALL-5690064 (Reactome)
MCFA, LCFAComplexR-ALL-5690519 (Reactome)
MCFA-CoA MetaboliteCHEBI:61907 (ChEBI)
MCFA-CoA, LCFA-CoAComplexR-ALL-5690044 (Reactome)
MCFA-CoA, LCFA-CoAComplexR-ALL-5690540 (Reactome)
MCFA-CoA, LCFA-CoAComplexR-ALL-8848288 (Reactome)
MCFA-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:61907 (ChEBI)
MCFAMetaboliteCHEBI:59554 (ChEBI)
MECR ProteinQ9BV79 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
MECR dimerComplexR-HSA-8952866 (Reactome)
MEMA-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15466 (ChEBI)
MMAA ProteinQ8IVH4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
MUT ProteinP22033 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
MYS-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15532 (ChEBI)
Mal-PPANT-S112-NDUFAB1ProteinO14561 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Malonyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15531 (ChEBI)
NAD+MetaboliteCHEBI:15846 (ChEBI)
NADHMetaboliteCHEBI:16908 (ChEBI)
NADP+MetaboliteCHEBI:18009 (ChEBI)
NADPHMetaboliteCHEBI:16474 (ChEBI)
Octanoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15533 (ChEBI)
PCCB ProteinP05166 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PCTPProteinQ9UKL6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PPANT-S112-NDUFAB1ProteinO14561 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PPiMetaboliteCHEBI:29888 (ChEBI)
PROP-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15539 (ChEBI)
PalmCoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15525 (ChEBI)
PiMetaboliteCHEBI:18367 (ChEBI)
S-2MDPDA-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:85945 (ChEBI)
S-2MPDA-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:85944 (ChEBI)
SUCC-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15380 (ChEBI)
THEM4 ProteinQ5T1C6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
THEM5 ProteinQ8N1Q8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Trifunctional ProteinComplexR-HSA-77267 (Reactome)
acyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:17984 (ChEBI)
adenosine 5'-monophosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:16027 (ChEBI)
cis,cis-3,6-Dodecadienoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28002 (ChEBI)
tdec2-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:10723 (ChEBI)
trans,cis-Lauro-2,6-dienoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28387 (ChEBI)
trans-Hex-2-enoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28706 (ChEBI)
trans-Hexadec-2-enoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:28935 (ChEBI)
trans-Oct-2-enoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:27537 (ChEBI)
trans-Tetradec-2-enoyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:27721 (ChEBI)

Annotated Interactions

View all...
SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
(S)-3-Hydroxydodecanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77256 (Reactome)
(S)-3-Hydroxydodecanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77254 (Reactome)
(S)-3-Hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77301 (Reactome)
(S)-3-Hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77303 (Reactome)
(S)-3-Hydroxytetradecanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77277 (Reactome)
(S)-3-Hydroxytetradecanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77283 (Reactome)
(S)-Hydroxydecanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77344 (Reactome)
(S)-Hydroxydecanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77342 (Reactome)
(S)-Hydroxyhexanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77325 (Reactome)
(S)-Hydroxyhexanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77323 (Reactome)
(S)-Hydroxyoctanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77333 (Reactome)
(S)-Hydroxyoctanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77331 (Reactome)
2-trans-4-cis-decadienoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-109341 (Reactome)
2-trans-4-cis-decadienoyl-CoAR-HSA-109343 (Reactome)
2-trans-Dodecenoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77263 (Reactome)
2-trans-Dodecenoyl-CoAR-HSA-77256 (Reactome)
2xMMAA:2xMUT:AdoCblmim-catalysisR-HSA-71010 (Reactome)
3-Oxodecanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77342 (Reactome)
3-Oxodecanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77340 (Reactome)
3-Oxododecanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77254 (Reactome)
3-Oxododecanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77309 (Reactome)
3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77323 (Reactome)
3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77321 (Reactome)
3-Oxooctanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77331 (Reactome)
3-Oxooctanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77329 (Reactome)
3-Oxopalmitoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77303 (Reactome)
3-Oxopalmitoyl-CoAR-HSA-77304 (Reactome)
3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77283 (Reactome)
3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoAR-HSA-77271 (Reactome)
3-trans-decenoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-109343 (Reactome)
3-trans-decenoyl-CoAR-HSA-109998 (Reactome)
3HB-CoAArrowR-HSA-77314 (Reactome)
3HB-CoAR-HSA-77312 (Reactome)
3OA-CoAArrowR-HSA-8874745 (Reactome)
4-cis-decenoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-109342 (Reactome)
4-cis-decenoyl-CoAR-HSA-109341 (Reactome)
6x(Btn-PCCA:PCCB)mim-catalysisR-HSA-71031 (Reactome)
ACA-CoAArrowR-HSA-77312 (Reactome)
ACAA2 tetramermim-catalysisR-HSA-8874745 (Reactome)
ACAD10mim-catalysisR-HSA-5695980 (Reactome)
ACAD11mim-catalysisR-HSA-5695989 (Reactome)
ACADL tetramerArrowR-HSA-109339 (Reactome)
ACADL tetramerArrowR-HSA-109342 (Reactome)
ACADL tetramermim-catalysisR-HSA-77263 (Reactome)
ACADL tetramermim-catalysisR-HSA-77274 (Reactome)
ACADM tetramermim-catalysisR-HSA-109341 (Reactome)
ACADM tetramermim-catalysisR-HSA-77338 (Reactome)
ACADM tetramermim-catalysisR-HSA-77345 (Reactome)
ACADS tetramermim-catalysisR-HSA-77319 (Reactome)
ACADS tetramermim-catalysisR-HSA-77327 (Reactome)
ACADVL dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-77299 (Reactome)
ACBD6:LCFA-CoAArrowR-HSA-8848250 (Reactome)
ACBD6R-HSA-8848250 (Reactome)
ACOT2,9, THEM4,5 dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-5690066 (Reactome)
ACSF2mim-catalysisR-HSA-5696004 (Reactome)
ACSM3,ACSM6mim-catalysisR-HSA-8875013 (Reactome)
ADPArrowR-HSA-71031 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-5696004 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-71031 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-8875013 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAArrowR-HSA-109339 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAArrowR-HSA-109342 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAArrowR-HSA-77271 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAArrowR-HSA-77304 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAArrowR-HSA-77309 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAArrowR-HSA-77321 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAArrowR-HSA-77329 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAArrowR-HSA-77340 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAR-HSA-8874745 (Reactome)
BH-CoAR-HSA-5695989 (Reactome)
BT-CoAArrowR-HSA-77321 (Reactome)
BT-CoAArrowR-HSA-8875013 (Reactome)
BT-CoAR-HSA-77319 (Reactome)
BUTR-HSA-8875013 (Reactome)
CO2R-HSA-71031 (Reactome)
CoA-SHArrowR-HSA-5690043 (Reactome)
CoA-SHArrowR-HSA-5690066 (Reactome)
CoA-SHArrowR-HSA-8874745 (Reactome)
CoA-SHArrowR-HSA-8933547 (Reactome)
CoA-SHR-HSA-109339 (Reactome)
CoA-SHR-HSA-109342 (Reactome)
CoA-SHR-HSA-5696004 (Reactome)
CoA-SHR-HSA-77271 (Reactome)
CoA-SHR-HSA-77304 (Reactome)
CoA-SHR-HSA-77309 (Reactome)
CoA-SHR-HSA-77321 (Reactome)
CoA-SHR-HSA-77329 (Reactome)
CoA-SHR-HSA-77340 (Reactome)
Crotonoyl-CoAArrowR-HSA-77319 (Reactome)
Crotonoyl-CoAR-HSA-77314 (Reactome)
Cytosolic ACOTs, THEM4mim-catalysisR-HSA-5690043 (Reactome)
DBI, (ACBD7)R-HSA-8848246 (Reactome)
DBI,ACBD7:MCFA-CoA,LCFA-CoAArrowR-HSA-8848246 (Reactome)
DCI dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-109338 (Reactome)
DCI dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-109998 (Reactome)
DEC-CoAArrowR-HSA-77309 (Reactome)
DEC-CoAArrowR-HSA-8952873 (Reactome)
DEC-CoAR-HSA-77345 (Reactome)
DECR1 tetramermim-catalysisR-HSA-109343 (Reactome)
DHB-CoAArrowR-HSA-5695989 (Reactome)
ECHS1 hexamermim-catalysisR-HSA-77256 (Reactome)
ECHS1 hexamermim-catalysisR-HSA-77314 (Reactome)
ECHS1 hexamermim-catalysisR-HSA-77325 (Reactome)
ECHS1 hexamermim-catalysisR-HSA-77333 (Reactome)
ECHS1 hexamermim-catalysisR-HSA-77344 (Reactome)
FADH2ArrowR-HSA-109339 (Reactome)
FADH2ArrowR-HSA-109341 (Reactome)
FADH2ArrowR-HSA-109342 (Reactome)
FADH2ArrowR-HSA-5695980 (Reactome)
FADH2ArrowR-HSA-5695989 (Reactome)
FADH2ArrowR-HSA-77263 (Reactome)
FADH2ArrowR-HSA-77274 (Reactome)
FADH2Arrow