DNA IR-Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and cellular response via ATM (Homo sapiens)

From WikiPathways

Revision as of 19:16, 22 November 2018 by Egonw (Talk | contribs)
(diff) ←Older revision | Current revision (diff) | Newer revision→ (diff)
Jump to: navigation, search
28, 76107, 229, 334, 39278, 100, 159, 206, 215...110, 143, 305, 33266, 81, 2572, 50, 146, 204, 2477871, 162, 32431, 17528934, 60, 31198, 35527956, 28328, 769, 382160, 197, 36534936, 29251139, 248230, 352, 39095, 156, 30928135729205, 28741438827025016496, 3854263018716053, 37033075, 24253, 18632898, 260, 3643, 191, 195, 29796, 193, 232323196, 258298, 40764, 314217223, 336, 353133, 337216921833573732244, 270243, 258, 3637833, 4365338617, 184292412190, 198, 34727, 102, 145, 189, 222...6428436932, 168, 256, 290, 33121839285188306309149, 2103158285339, 34528970164363167306199138, 26230335ATM-TRAF6-cIAP1moduleInhibition pathNuA4complexIonizing Radiation (IR)DNA DSBs21, 25, 63, 144, 174...12, 200, 207, 213, 249...TERF2M-Phase ProgressionRAD17ACTL6APARP1KAT5OBFC2BARF(CDKN2A)MRE11APCNABAK1TRIM28ApoptosisTP53BP1RAD51UPF1CASP9CHK1NBNRAD50MDC1RAD52BLMmRNA nonsense-mediateddecay (NMD)CHK2TP53CDK5SMC3MCPH1RASSF1SMC1ABRCA1STK3DCLRE1CATRp73CohesinEXO1APAF1DNA-PKBRCA2BAXNFkB activationThe intra-S-phasecheckpoint mediatedarrest of cell cycleprogressionMDM2TRAF6ATMLATS1HSF1MCPH1E2F120, 23, 103, 219, 243...13, 300, 402, 43815988, 131, 272, 377, 415...24, 72, 112, 116, 148...236, 354, 437108, 132, 212, 264, 365120, 254, 35091, 109, 157, 27498, 260, 310, 355, 364...420173, 230, 3525, 52, 282, 318, 320...205, 259, 287, 387133, 337, 34989, 275, 303, 342, 425178, 324, 373, 41173, 177, 243, 302, 391...129, 294, 317, 37837, 141, 245153, 159, 16418, 83, 124, 134, 137...165, 356, 358, 39614, 49, 152, 41214, 58, 152, 4108, 42, 99, 111, 160...62, 115, 130, 304, 31651, 344, 389221, 339, 38045, 296, 319, 34816, 84, 135, 147, 288...48, 116, 169, 276, 2774, 220, 321, 401113, 343, 4179, 149, 210, 361, 382...6, 172, 214, 280, 41311, 114, 241, 379, 40541, 55, 118, 126, 158...47, 125, 140, 171, 237...99, 226, 340, 39511, 69, 239154, 235, 253180, 238, 295, 42322, 308, 312211, 268, 371, 372PATM38, 43, 59, 93, 121...PBID74, 233, 419RAD9A80, 327H2AX1, 67, 105, 166, 176...DNA Repair15, 234, 267, 381, 429PAPAF1CASP9CASP37, 35, 54, 333, 416...RNF865, 299, 306RIF1Cell CycleCheckpoint Activation202, 291, 292101, 136, 246, 397, 399G2/M-Phase Checkpoint122, 150, 394Damage ProcessingDNA Polymerasedelta tetramer251, 40877, 261, 424Member of the groupIntermediate paths not shownPath to processStimulation pathRelation to pathRelation to path(intermediate steps not shown)CDC25C46, 90, 225Translocation pathATMTRAF6Cell Survival255ABL196, 104, 117, 346ACTL6AKAT53602653MDM2ARF(CDKN2A)Cell cycle arrestat G1 & G2ARF-MD2McomplexATF2123, 155, 27111, 69, 23919, 30478188MRE11A188RAD50NBNGammaH2AXMDC186MRNcomplexYAP119426, 106, 228, 375FANCD210, 57, 79, 97, 182...7, 61, 87, 94, 119...65, 299, 306, 328, 422FANCD1FANCD1BRCA2128, 358, 39613468, 286, 293217


Wide-ranging correlations are found between the initial physical features of radiation exposure and the possibility of biological consequences. These persist even with the chain of physical, chemical and biological processes that eliminate the majority of the early damage.

Ionizing radiations (IRs) generate hundreds of different simple chemical products in DNA as well multitudes of clustered combinations. The simple products, including single-strand breaks (SSBs), tend to correlate poorly with biological effectiveness. However, when IR produce double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA it comes a large rise in relative biological response to cellular damage. In general terms, IRs produce a wide variety of DNA lesions and DSBs are considered to be the major actor responsible for cell death. If unrepaired or improperly repaired, DSBs contribute to chromosomal aberrations, which may lead to human disorders including cancer. The accurate preservation of chromosome continuity in human cells during either DNA replication or repair is critical for preventing the conversion of normal cells to an oncogenic status.

The production of DSBs can be quantified by biochemical techniques, e.g., pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and cell imaging, either globally or damage specific, through immunostaining of marker proteins or recruitment of fluorescent proteins to the DNA breaks.

In vertebrate cells, the elimination of DSBs with minimal nucleotide sequence change involves the spatiotemporal orchestration of an apparently endless number of proteins ranging, according to their action, from the nucleotide level to nucleosome organization and chromosome architecture. DSBs trigger a multitude of post-translational modifications that alter both, catalytic activities and the specificity of protein interactions including: phosphorylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, acetylation, and SUMOylation, followed by the turnaround of these changes as repair has been completed.

In mammalian cells, the formation of DSBs initiates a massive global cellular response, either checkpoint signaling and repair or cell death (apoptosis). A major role is that of the MRN (MRE11/RAD50/NBS1) complex binding to DSBs and facilitating the activation of ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated) protein, a key PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) related kinase in the DNA damage response (DDR). At the break site, ATM autophosphorylates, allowing its activation and the following phosphorylation of several substrates in the surrounding chromatin.

The following pathway diagrams the early events of the cellular response after DSBs by IR through the activation of ATM in human cells.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



View all...
  1. Dickey JS, Redon CE, Nakamura AJ, Baird BJ, Sedelnikova OA, Bonner WM; ''H2AX: functional roles and potential applications.''; Chromosoma, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Zhao L, Samuels T, Winckler S, Korgaonkar C, Tompkins V, Horne MC, Quelle DE; ''Cyclin G1 has growth inhibitory activity linked to the ARF-Mdm2-p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways.''; Mol Cancer Res, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Potts PR, Porteus MH, Yu H; ''Human SMC5/6 complex promotes sister chromatid homologous recombination by recruiting the SMC1/3 cohesin complex to double-strand breaks.''; EMBO J, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Harris N, Brill E, Shohat O, Prokocimer M, Wolf D, Arai N, Rotter V; ''Molecular basis for heterogeneity of the human p53 protein.''; Mol Cell Biol, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Ward IM, Minn K, Jorda KG, Chen J; ''Accumulation of checkpoint protein 53BP1 at DNA breaks involves its binding to phosphorylated histone H2AX.''; J Biol Chem, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Gilmore-Hebert M, Ramabhadran R, Stern DF; ''Interactions of ErbB4 and Kap1 connect the growth factor and DNA damage response pathways.''; Mol Cancer Res, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Shi Y; ''Mechanisms of caspase activation and inhibition during apoptosis.''; Mol Cell, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Ryu MJ, Kim BJ, Lee JW, Lee MW, Choi HK, Kim ST; ''Direct interaction between cohesin complex and DNA replication machinery.''; Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Wang J, Pluth JM, Cooper PK, Cowan MJ, Chen DJ, Yannone SM; ''Artemis deficiency confers a DNA double-strand break repair defect and Artemis phosphorylation status is altered by DNA damage and cell cycle progression.''; DNA Repair (Amst), 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  10. Nakanishi K, Yang YG, Pierce AJ, Taniguchi T, Digweed M, D'Andrea AD, Wang ZQ, Jasin M; ''Human Fanconi anemia monoubiquitination pathway promotes homologous DNA repair.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  11. Xu X, Lee J, Stern DF; ''Microcephalin is a DNA damage response protein involved in regulation of CHK1 and BRCA1.''; JBC, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  12. Lehman AR, Stevens S; ''The production and repair of double strand breaks in cells from normal humans and from patients with ataxia telangiectasia.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 1977 PubMed Europe PMC
  13. Bouligand J, Delemer B, Hecart AC, Meduri G, Viengchareun S, Amazit L, Trabado S, Fève B, Guiochon-Mantel A, Young J, Lombès M; ''Familial glucocorticoid receptor haploinsufficiency by non-sense mediated mRNA decay, adrenal hyperplasia and apparent mineralocorticoid excess.''; PLoS One, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  14. de Jager M, van Noort J, van Gent DC, Dekker C, Kanaar R, Wyman C; ''Human Rad50/Mre11 is a flexible complex that can tether DNA ends.''; Mol Cell, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  15. Liu VF, Boubnov NV, Weaver DT; ''Cell cycle checkpoints and repair of ionizing radiation damage.''; Stem Cells, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  16. Eymin B, Karayan L, Séité P, Brambilla C, Brambilla E, Larsen CJ, Gazzéri S; ''Human ARF binds E2F1 and inhibits its transcriptional activity.''; Oncogene, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  17. Khosravi R, Maya R, Gottlieb T, Oren M, Shiloh Y, Shkedy D; ''Rapid ATM-dependent phosphorylation of MDM2 precedes p53 accumulation in response to DNA damage.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  18. Zhang J.; ''The role of BRCA1 in homologous recombination repair in response to replication stress: significance in tumorigenesis and cancer therapy.''; Cell Biosci, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  19. Stucki M, Clapperton JA, Mohammad D, Yaffe MB, Smerdon SJ, Jackson SP; ''MDC1 directly binds phosphorylated histone H2AX to regulate cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks.''; Cell, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  20. Cooper WN, Hesson LB, Matallanas D, Dallol A, von Kriegsheim A, Ward R, Kolch W, Latif F; ''RASSF2 associates with and stabilizes the proapoptotic kinase MST2.''; Oncogene, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  21. Goodhead DT; ''The initial physical damage produced by ionizing radiations.''; Int J Radiat Biol, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC
  22. Wang SC, Nakajima Y, Yu YL, Xia W, Chen CT, Yang CC, McIntush EW, Li LY, Hawke DH, Kobayashi R, Hung MC; ''Tyrosine phosphorylation controls PCNA function through protein stability.''; Nat Cell Biol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  23. Callus BA, Verhagen AM, Vaux DL; ''Association of mammalian sterile twenty kinases, Mst1 and Mst2, with hSalvador via C-terminal coiled-coil domains, leads to its stabilization and phosphorylation.''; FEBS J, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  24. Chen MS, Ryan CE, Piwnica-Worms H; ''Chk1 kinase negatively regulates mitotic function of Cdc25A phosphatase through 14-3-3 binding.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  25. Price A; ''The repair of ionising radiation-induced damage to DNA.''; Semin Cancer Biol, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  26. Zhao B, Wei X, Li W, Udan RS, Yang Q, Kim J, Xie J, Ikenoue T, Yu J, Li L, Zheng P, Ye K, Chinnaiyan A, Halder G, Lai ZC, Guan KL; ''Inactivation of YAP oncoprotein by the Hippo pathway is involved in cell contact inhibition and tissue growth control.''; Genes Dev, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  27. Liu Q, Guntuku S, Cui XS, Matsuoka S, Cortez D, Tamai K, Luo G, Carattini-Rivera S, DeMayo F, Bradley A, Donehower LA, Elledge SJ; ''Chk1 is an essential kinase that is regulated by Atr and required for the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint.''; Genes Dev, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  28. Suzuki K, Kodama S, Watanabe M; ''Recruitment of ATM protein to double strand DNA irradiated with ionizing radiation.''; J Biol Chem, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  29. Chan EH, Nousiainen M, Chalamalasetty RB, Schäfer A, Nigg EA, Silljé HH; ''The Ste20-like kinase Mst2 activates the human large tumor suppressor kinase Lats1.''; Oncogene, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  30. Tanaka H, Mendonca MS, Bradshaw PS, Hoelz DJ, Malkas LH, Meyn MS, Gilley D; ''DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of the human telomere-associated protein TRF2.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  31. Slee EA, Harte MT, Kluck RM, Wolf BB, Casiano CA, Newmeyer DD, Wang HG, Reed JC, Nicholson DW, Alnemri ES, Green DR, Martin SJ; ''Ordering the cytochrome c-initiated caspase cascade: hierarchical activation of caspases-2, -3, -6, -7, -8, and -10 in a caspase-9-dependent manner.''; J Cell Biol, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  32. Zhang L, Zhang J, Hu C, Cao J, Zhou X, Hu Y, He Q, Yang B; ''Efficient activation of p53 pathway in A549 cells exposed to L2, a novel compound targeting p53-MDM2 interaction.''; Anticancer Drugs, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  33. Vermeulen K, Van Bockstaele DR, Berneman ZN; ''The cell cycle: a review of regulation, deregulation and therapeutic targets in cancer.''; Cell Prolif, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  34. Foray N, Marot D, Gabriel A, Randrianarison V, Carr AM, Perricaudet M, Ashworth A, Jeggo P; ''A subset of ATM- and ATR-dependent phosphorylation events requires the BRCA1 protein.''; EMBO J, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  35. Pelletier M, Cartron PF, Delaval F, Meflah K, Vallette FM, Oliver L; ''Caspase 3 activation is controlled by a sequence located in the N-terminus of its large subunit.''; Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  36. Stokes MP, Rush J, Macneill J, Ren JM, Sprott K, Nardone J, Yang V, Beausoleil SA, Gygi SP, Livingstone M, Zhang H, Polakiewicz RD, Comb MJ; ''Profiling of UV-induced ATM/ATR signaling pathways.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  37. Hao Y, Chun A, Cheung K, Rashidi B, Yang X; ''Tumor suppressor LATS1 is a negative regulator of oncogene YAP.''; J Biol Chem, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  38. Savitsky K, Sfez S, Tagle DA, Ziv Y, Sartiel A, Collins FS, Shiloh Y, Rotman G; ''The complete sequence of the coding region of the ATM gene reveals similarity to cell cycle regulators in different species.''; Hum Mol Genet, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  39. Sun Y, Xu Y, Roy K, Price BD; ''DNA damage-induced acetylation of lysine 3016 of ATM activates ATM kinase activity.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  40. Brady ME, Ozanne DM, Gaughan L, Waite I, Cook S, Neal DE, Robson CN; ''Tip60 is a nuclear hormone receptor coactivator.''; J Biol Chem, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  41. Xu M, Sheppard KA, Peng CY, Yee AS, Piwnica-Worms H; ''Cyclin A/CDK2 binds directly to E2F-1 and inhibits the DNA-binding activity of E2F-1/DP-1 by phosphorylation.''; Mol Cel Biol, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  42. Sun Y, Yu H, Zou H; ''Nuclear exclusion of separase prevents cohesin cleavage in interphase cells.''; Cell Cycle, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  43. Vorechovský I, Rasio D, Luo L, Monaco C, Hammarström L, Webster AD, Zaloudik J, Barbanti-Brodani G, James M, Russo G, et al.; ''The ATM gene and susceptibility to breast cancer: analysis of 38 breast tumors reveals no evidence for mutation.''; Cancer Res, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  44. Calzone L, Gelay A, Zinovyev A, Radvanyi F, Barillot E; ''A comprehensive modular map of molecular interactions in RB/E2F pathway.''; Mol Syst Biol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  45. Gavathiotis E, Suzuki M, Davis ML, Pitter K, Bird GH, Katz SG, Tu H, Kim H, Cheng EH, Tjandra N, Walensky LD; ''BAX activation is initiated at a novel interaction site.''; Nature, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  46. Noll A, Ruppenthal SL, Montenarh M; ''The mitotic phosphatase cdc25C at the Golgi apparatus.''; Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  47. Muris DF, Bezzubova O, Buerstedde JM, Vreeken K, Balajee AS, Osgood CJ, Troelstra C, Hoeijmakers JH, Ostermann K, Schmidt H; ''Cloning of human and mouse genes homologous to RAD52, a yeast gene involved in DNA repair and recombination.''; Mutat Res, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  48. Kass EM, Ahn J, Tanaka T, Freed-Pastor WA, Keezer S, Prives C; ''Stability of checkpoint kinase 2 is regulated via phosphorylation at serine 456.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  49. Trujillo KM, Yuan SS, Lee EY, Sung P; ''Nuclease activities in a complex of human recombination and DNA repair factors Rad50, Mre11, and p95.''; J Biol Chem, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  50. Tompkins VS, Hagen J, Frazier AA, Lushnikova T, Fitzgerald MP, di Tommaso A, Ladeveze V, Domann FE, Eischen CM, Quelle DE; ''A novel nuclear interactor of ARF and MDM2 (NIAM) that maintains chromosomal stability.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  51. Ye J, Lenain C, Bauwens S, Rizzo A, Saint-Léger A, Poulet A, Benarroch D, Magdinier F, Morere J, Amiard S, Verhoeyen E, Britton S, Calsou P, Salles B, Bizard A, Nadal M, Salvati E, Sabatier L, Wu Y, Biroccio A, Londoño-Vallejo A, Giraud-Panis MJ, Gilson E; ''TRF2 and apollo cooperate with topoisomerase 2alpha to protect human telomeres from replicative damage.''; Cell, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  52. Wang B, Matsuoka S, Carpenter PB, Elledge SJ; ''53BP1, a mediator of the DNA damage checkpoint.''; Science, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  53. Hinz M, Stilmann M, Arslan SÇ, Khanna KK, Dittmar G, Scheidereit C; ''A cytoplasmic ATM-TRAF6-cIAP1 module links nuclear DNA damage signaling to ubiquitin-mediated NF-κB activation.''; Mol Cell, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  54. Fernandes-Alnemri T, Litwack G, Alnemri ES; ''CPP32, a novel human apoptotic protein with homology to Caenorhabditis elegans cell death protein Ced-3 and mammalian interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme.''; J Biol. Chem., 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  55. Kitagawa M, Higashi H, Suzuki-Takahashi I, Segawa K, Hanks SK, Taya Y, Nishimura S, Okuyama A; ''Phosphorylation of E2F-1 by cyclin A-cdk2.''; Oncogene, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  56. Li X, Lee YK, Jeng JC, Yen Y, Schultz DC, Shih HM, Ann DK; ''Role for KAP1 serine 824 phosphorylation and sumoylation/desumoylation switch in regulating KAP1-mediated transcriptional repression.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  57. Garcia-Higuera I, Taniguchi T, Ganesan S, Meyn MS, Timmers C, Hejna J, Grompe M, D'Andrea AD; ''Interaction of the Fanconi anemia proteins and BRCA1 in a common pathway.''; Mol Cell, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  58. de Jager M, Wyman C, van Gent DC, Kanaar R; ''DNA end-binding specificity of human Rad50/Mre11 is influenced by ATP.''; Nucleic Acids Res, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  59. Brown KD, Ziv Y, Sadanandan SN, Chessa L, Collins FS, Shiloh Y, Tagle DA; ''The ataxia-telangiectasia gene product, a constitutively expressed nuclear protein that is not up-regulated following genome damage.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  60. Mu JJ, Wang Y, Luo H, Leng M, Zhang J, Yang T, Besusso D, Jung SY, Qin J; ''A proteomic analysis of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)/ATM-Rad3-related (ATR) substrates identifies the ubiquitin-proteasome system as a regulator for DNA damage checkpoints.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  61. Affar EB, Germain M, Winstall E, Vodenicharov M, Shah RG, Salvesen GS, Poirier GG; ''Caspase-3-mediated processing of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase during apoptosis.''; J Biol Chem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  62. Goldberg M, Stucki M, Falck J, D'Amours D, Rahman D, Pappin D, Bartek J, Jackson SP; ''MDC1 is required for the intra-S-phase DNA damage checkpoint.''; Nature, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  63. Bradley MO; ''Double-strand breaks in DNA caused by repair of damage due to ultraviolet light.''; J Supramol Struct Cell Biochem, 1981 PubMed Europe PMC
  64. Branzei D, Foiani M; ''Regulation of DNA repair throughout the cell cycle.''; Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  65. Peuscher MH, Jacobs JJ; ''DNA-damage response and repair activities at uncapped telomeres depend on RNF8.''; Nat Cell Biol, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC
  66. Lee MS, Edwards RA, Thede GL, Glover JN; ''Structure of the BRCT repeat domain of MDC1 and its specificity for the free COOH-terminal end of the gamma-H2AX histone tail.''; J Biol Chem, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  67. Tanaka T, Huang X, Halicka HD, Zhao H, Traganos F, Albino AP, Dai W, Darzynkiewicz Z; ''Cytometry of ATM activation and histone H2AX phosphorylation to estimate extent of DNA damage induced by exogenous agents.''; Cytometry A, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  68. Zinkel SS, Hurov KE, Ong C, Abtahi FM, Gross A, Korsmeyer SJ; ''A role for proapoptotic BID in the DNA-damage response.''; Cell, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  69. Jackson AP, Eastwood H, Bell SM, Adu J, Toomes C, Carr IM, Roberts E, Hampshire DJ, Crow YJ, Mighell AJ, Karbani G, Jafri H, Rashid Y, Mueller RF, Markham AF, Woods CG; ''Identification of microcephalin, a protein implicated in determining the size of the human brain.''; Am J Hum Genet, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  70. Jackson P, Ridgway P, Rayner J, Noble J, Braithwaite A; ''Transcriptional regulation of the PCNA promoter by p53.''; Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  71. Nielsen FC, Jäger AC, Lützen A, Bundgaard JR, Rasmussen LJ; ''Characterization of human exonuclease 1 in complex with mismatch repair proteins, subcellular localization and association with PCNA.''; Oncogene, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  72. Sidi S, Sanda T, Kennedy RD, Hagen AT, Jette CA, Hoffmans R, Pascual J, Imamura S, Kishi S, Amatruda JF, Kanki JP, Green DR, D'Andrea AA, Look AT; ''Chk1 suppresses a caspase-2 apoptotic response to DNA damage that bypasses p53, Bcl-2, and caspase-3.''; Cell, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  73. Song MS, Song SJ, Kim SY, Oh HJ, Lim DS; ''The tumour suppressor RASSF1A promotes MDM2 self-ubiquitination by disrupting the MDM2-DAXX-HAUSP complex.''; EMBO J, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  74. Wang K, Yin XM, Chao DT, Milliman CL, Korsmeyer SJ; ''BID: a novel BH3 domain-only death aponist.''; Genes Dev., 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  75. Harvey JS; ''Requirement of ATM-dependent phosphorylation of brca1 in the DNA damage response to double-strand breaks.''; Science, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  76. Andegeko Y, Moyal L, Mittelman L, Tsarfaty I, Shiloh Y, Rotman G; ''Nuclear retention of ATM at sites of DNA double strand breaks.''; J Biol Chem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  77. Vignard J, Mirey G, Salles B; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC
  78. Squatrito M, Gorrini C, Amati B; ''Tip60 in DNA damage response and growth control: many tricks in one HAT.''; Trends Cell Biol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  79. Naim V, Rosselli F; ''The FANC pathway and BLM collaborate during mitosis to prevent micro-nucleation and chromosome abnormalities.''; Nat Cell Biol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  80. Greer Card DA, Sierant ML, Davey S; ''Rad9A is required for G2 decatenation checkpoint and to prevent endoreduplication in response to topoisomerase II inhibition.''; J Biol Chem, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  81. Nakamura AJ, Rao VA, Pommier Y, Bonner WM; ''The complexity of phosphorylated H2AX foci formation and DNA repair assembly at DNA double-strand breaks.''; Cell Cycle, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  82. Chen MJ, Lin YT, Lieberman HB, Chen G, Lee EY; ''ATM-dependent phosphorylation of human Rad9 is required for ionizing radiation-induced checkpoint activation.''; J Biol Chem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  83. Deffenbaugh AM, Frank TS, Hoffman M, Cannon-Albright L, Neuhausen SL; ''Characterization of common BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants.''; Genet Test, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  84. Itahana K, Bhat KP, Jin A, Itahana Y, Hawke D, Kobayashi R, Zhang Y; ''Tumor suppressor ARF degrades B23, a nucleolar protein involved in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation.''; Mol Cell, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  85. Li P, Nijhawan D, Budihardjo I, Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, Alnemri ES, Wang X; ''Cytochrome c and dATP-dependent formation of Apaf-1/caspase-9 complex initiates an apoptotic protease cascade.''; Cell, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  86. Cartron PF, Gallenne T, Bougras G, Gautier F, Manero F, Vusio P, Meflah K, Vallette FM, Juin P; ''The first alpha helix of Bax plays a necessary role in its ligand-induced activation by the BH3-only proteins Bid and PUMA.''; Mol Cell, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  87. Takahashi M, Mukai H, Toshimori M, Miyamoto M, Ono Y; ''Proteolytic activation of PKN by caspase-3 or related protease during apoptosis.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  88. Anne SL, Saudou F, Humbert S; ''Phosphorylation of huntingtin by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is induced by DNA damage and regulates wild-type and mutant huntingtin toxicity in neurons.''; J Neurosci, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  89. Kline MP, Morimoto RI; ''Repression of the heat shock factor 1 transcriptional activation domain is modulated by constitutive phosphorylation.''; Mol Cell Biol, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  90. Sadhu K, Reed SI, Richardson H, Russell P; ''Human homolog of fission yeast cdc25 mitotic inducer is predominantly expressed in G2.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  91. Wang AT, Kim T, Wagner JE, Conti BA, Lach FP, Huang AL, Molina H, Sanborn EM, Zierhut H, Cornes BK, Abhyankar A, Sougnez C, Gabriel SB, Auerbach AD, Kowalczykowski SC, Smogorzewska A; ''A Dominant Mutation in Human RAD51 Reveals Its Function in DNA Interstrand Crosslink Repair Independent of Homologous Recombination.''; Mol Cell, 2015 PubMed Europe PMC
  92. Tian B, Yang Q, Mao Z; ''Phosphorylation of ATM by Cdk5 mediates DNA damage signalling and regulates neuronal death.''; Nat Cell Biol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  93. Platzer M, Rotman G, Bauer D, Uziel T, Savitsky K, Bar-Shira A, Gilad S, Shiloh Y, Rosenthal A; ''Ataxia-telangiectasia locus: sequence analysis of 184 kb of human genomic DNA containing the entire ATM gene.''; Genome Res, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  94. Nicholson DW, Ali A, Thornberry NA, Vaillancourt JP, Ding CK, Gallant M, Gareau Y, Griffin PR, Labelle M, Lazebnik YA; ''Identification and inhibition of the ICE/CED-3 protease necessary for mammalian apoptosis.''; Nature, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  95. Haince JF, Kozlov S, Dawson VL, Dawson TM, Hendzel MJ, Lavin MF, Poirier GG; ''Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling network is modulated by a novel poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent pathway in the early response to DNA-damaging agents.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  96. Shaul Y, Ben-Yehoyada M; ''Role of c-Abl in the DNA damage stress response.''; Cell Res, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  97. Taniguchi T, Garcia-Higuera I, Xu B, Andreassen PR, Gregory RC, Kim ST, Lane WS, Kastan MB, D'Andrea AD; ''Convergence of the fanconi anemia and ataxia telangiectasia signaling pathways.''; Cell, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  98. Post S, Weng YC, Cimprich K, Chen LB, Xu Y, Lee EY; ''Phosphorylation of serines 635 and 645 of human Rad17 is cell cycle regulated and is required for G(1)/S checkpoint activation in response to DNA damage.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  99. Watrin E, Peters JM; ''The cohesin complex is required for the DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in mammalian cells.''; EMBO J, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  100. Doyon Y, Côté J; ''The highly conserved and multifunctional NuA4 HAT complex.''; Curr Opin Genet Dev, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  101. Yang XH, Zou L; ''Checkpoint and coordinated cellular responses to DNA damage.''; Results Probl Cell Differ, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  102. Chini CC, Chen J; ''Human claspin is required for replication checkpoint control.''; J Biol Chem, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  103. Kilili GK, Kyriakis JM; ''Mammalian Ste20-like kinase (Mst2) indirectly supports Raf-1/ERK pathway activity via maintenance of protein phosphatase-2A catalytic subunit levels and consequent suppression of inhibitory Raf-1 phosphorylation.''; J Biol Chem, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  104. Wang, JY; '' Regulation of cell death by the Abl tyrosine kinase.''; Oncogene, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  105. Firsanov DV, Solovjeva LV, Svetlova MP; ''H2AX phosphorylation at the sites of DNA double-strand breaks in cultivated mammalian cells and tissues.''; Clin Epigenetics, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC
  106. Tomlinson V, Gudmundsdottir K, Luong P, Leung KY, Knebel A, Basu S; ''JNK phosphorylates Yes-associated protein (YAP) to regulate apoptosis.''; Cell Death Dis, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  107. Lavin MF, Kozlov S, Gatei M, Kijas AW; ''ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of All Three Members of the MRN Complex: From Sensor to Adaptor.''; Biomolecules, 2015 PubMed Europe PMC
  108. Yazdi PT, Wang Y, Zhao S, Patel N, Lee EY, Qin J; ''SMC1 is a downstream effector in the ATM/NBS1 branch of the human S-phase checkpoint.''; Genes Dev, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  109. Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P; ''Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and Rad54.''; J Biol Chem, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  110. Zou H, Li Y, Liu X, Wang X; ''An APAF-1.cytochrome c multimeric complex is a functional apoptosome that activates procaspase-9.''; J Biol. Chem., 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  111. Liu J, Zhang Z, Bando M, Itoh T, Deardorff MA, Clark D, Kaur M, Tandy S, Kondoh T, Rappaport E, Spinner NB, Vega H, Jackson LG, Shirahige K, Krantz ID; ''Transcriptional dysregulation in NIPBL and cohesin mutant human cells.''; PLoS Biol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  112. Sanchez Y, Wong C, Thoma RS, Richman R, Wu Z, Piwnica-Worms H, Elledge SJ; ''Conservation of the Chk1 checkpoint pathway in mammals: linkage of DNA damage to Cdk regulation through Cdc25.''; Science, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  113. Liang H, Atkins H, Abdel-Fattah R, Jones SN, Lunec J; ''Genomic organisation of the human MDM2 oncogene and relationship to its alternatively spliced mRNAs.''; Gene, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  114. Singh N, Basnet H, Wiltshire TD, Mohammad DH, Thompson JR, Héroux A, Botuyan MV, Yaffe MB, Couch FJ, Rosenfeld MG, Mer G; ''Dual recognition of phosphoserine and phosphotyrosine in histone variant H2A.X by DNA damage response protein MCPH1.''; PNAS, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC
  115. Lou Z, Chen BP, Asaithamby A, Minter-Dykhouse K, Chen DJ, Chen J; ''MDC1 regulates DNA-PK autophosphorylation in response to DNA damage.''; J Biol Chem, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  116. Bahassi EM, Ovesen JL, Riesenberg AL, Bernstein WZ, Hasty PE, Stambrook PJ; ''The checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2 regulate the functional associations between hBRCA2 and Rad51 in response to DNA damage.''; Oncogene, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  117. Colicelli, J; ''ABL tyrosine kinases: evolution of function, regulation, and specificity.''; Sci Signal, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  118. Wu X, Levine AJ; ''p53 and E2F-1 cooperate to mediate apoptosis.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  119. Bushell M, Wood W, Clemens MJ, Morley SJ; ''Changes in integrity and association of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factors during apoptosis.''; Eur J Biochem, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  120. Cao Z, Xiong J, Takeuchi M, Kurama T, Goeddel DV; ''TRAF6 is a signal transducer for interleukin-1.''; Nature, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  121. Rotman G, Shiloh Y; ''ATM: from gene to function.''; Hum Mol Genet, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  122. Marini F, Nardo T, Giannattasio M, Minuzzo M, Stefanini M, Plevani P, Muzi Falconi M; ''DNA nucleotide excision repair-dependent signaling to checkpoint activation.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  123. Gozdecka M, Breitwieser W; ''The roles of ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) in tumorigenesis.''; Biochem Soc Trans, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC
  124. Oluwagbemiga LA, Oluwole A, Kayode AA; ''Seventeen years after BRCA1: what is the BRCA mutation status of the breast cancer patients in Africa? - a systematic review.''; Springerplus, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC
  125. Baynton K, Otterlei M, Bjørås M, von Kobbe C, Bohr VA, Seeberg E; ''WRN interacts physically and functionally with the recombination mediator protein RAD52.''; J Biol Chem, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  126. Johnson DG, Ohtani K, Nevins JR; ''Autoregulatory control of E2F1 expression in response to positive and negative regulators of cell cycle progression.''; Genes Dev, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  127. Savitsky K, Bar-Shira A, Gilad S, Rotman G, Ziv Y, Vanagaite L, Tagle DA, Smith S, Uziel T, Sfez S, Ashkenazi M, Pecker I, Frydman M, Harnik R, Patanjali SR, Simmons A, Clines GA, Sartiel A, Gatti RA, Chessa L, Sanal O, Lavin MF, Jaspers NG, Taylor AM, Arlett CF, Miki T, Weissman SM, Lovett M, Collins FS, Shiloh Y; ''A single ataxia telangiectasia gene with a product similar to PI-3 kinase.''; Science, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  128. Yavuzer U, Smith GC, Bliss T, Werner D, Jackson SP; ''DNA end-independent activation of DNA-PK mediated via association with the DNA-binding protein C1D.''; Genes Dev, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  129. Kerr JF, Wyllie AH, Currie AR; ''Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics.''; Br J Cancer, 1972 PubMed Europe PMC
  130. Mochan TA, Venere M, DiTullio RA Jr, Halazonetis TD; ''53BP1 and NFBD1/MDC1-Nbs1 function in parallel interacting pathways activating ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) in response to DNA damage.''; Cancer Res, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  131. Hisanaga S, Endo R; ''Regulation and role of cyclin-dependent kinase activity in neuronal survival and death.''; J Neurochem, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  132. Gregson HC, Van Hooser AA, Ball AR Jr, Brinkley BR, Yokomori K; ''Localization of human SMC1 protein at kinetochores.''; Chromosome Res, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  133. Li Y, Bolderson E, Kumar R, Muniandy PA, Xue Y, Richard DJ, Seidman M, Pandita TK, Khanna KK, Wang W; ''HSSB1 and hSSB2 form similar multiprotein complexes that participate in DNA damage response.''; J Biol Chem, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  134. Yarden RI, Pardo-Reoyo S, Sgagias M, Cowan KH, Brody LC; ''BRCA1 regulates the G2/M checkpoint by activating Chk1 kinase upon DNA damage.''; Nat Genet, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  135. Huang Y, Wu M, Li HY; ''Tumor suppressor ARF promotes non-classic proteasome-independent polyubiquitination of COMMD1.''; J Biol Chem, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  136. Warmerdam DO, Kanaar R; ''Dealing with DNA damage: relationships between checkpoint and repair pathways.''; Mutat Res, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  137. Caestecker KW, Van de Walle GR; ''The role of BRCA1 in DNA double-strand repair: past and present.''; Exp Cell Res, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  138. Pützer BM; ''E2F1 death pathways as targets for cancer therapy.''; J Cell Mol Med, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  139. Bessho T, Sancar A; ''Human DNA damage checkpoint protein hRAD9 is a 3' to 5' exonuclease.''; J Biol Chem, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  140. Tewari M, Quan LT, O'Rourke K, Desnoyers S, Zeng Z, Beidler DR, Poirier GG, Salvesen GS, Dixit VM; ''Yama/CPP32 beta, a mammalian homolog of CED-3, is a CrmA-inhibitable protease that cleaves the death substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.''; Cell, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  141. Iida S, Hirota T, Morisaki T, Marumoto T, Hara T, Kuninaka S, Honda S, Kosai K, Kawasuji M, Pallas DC, Saya H; ''Tumor suppressor WARTS ensures genomic integrity by regulating both mitotic progression and G1 tetraploidy checkpoint function.''; Oncogene, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  142. Miki Y, Swensen J, Shattuck-Eidens D, Futreal PA, Harshman K, Tavtigian S, Liu Q, Cochran C, Bennett LM, Ding W, et al.; ''A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1.''; Science, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  143. Acehan D, Jiang X, Morgan DG, Heuser JE, Wang X, Akey CW; ''Three-dimensional structure of the apoptosome: implications for assembly, procaspase-9 binding, and activation.''; Mol. Cell, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  144. Roots R, Holley W, Chatterjee A, Rachal E, Kraft G; ''The influence of radiation quality on the formation of DNA breaks.''; Adv Space Res, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC
  145. Myers JS, Cortez D; ''Rapid activation of ATR by ionizing radiation requires ATM and Mre11.''; J Biol Chem, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  146. Weber JD, Kuo ML, Bothner B, DiGiammarino EL, Kriwacki RW, Roussel MF, Sherr CJ; ''Cooperative signals governing ARF-mdm2 interaction and nucleolar localization of the complex.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  147. Ayrault O, Andrique L, Larsen CJ, Seite P; ''Human Arf tumor suppressor specifically interacts with chromatin containing the promoter of rRNA genes.''; Oncogene, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  148. Ou YH, Chung PH, Sun TP, Shieh SY; ''p53 C-terminal phosphorylation by CHK1 and CHK2 participates in the regulation of DNA-damage-induced C-terminal acetylation.''; Mol Biol Cell, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  149. Poinsignon C, de Chasseval R, Soubeyrand S, Moshous D, Fischer A, Haché RJ, de Villartay JP; ''Phosphorylation of Artemis following irradiation-induced DNA damage.''; Eur J Immunol, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  150. Allalunis-Turner J, Barron GM, Day RS 3rd; ''Intact G2-phase checkpoint in cells of a human cell line lacking DNA-dependent protein kinase activity.''; Radiat Res, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  151. Castro E, Eeles R.; ''The role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in prostate cancer.''; Asian J Androl, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC
  152. Paull TT, Gellert M; ''The 3' to 5' exonuclease activity of Mre 11 facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks.''; Mol Cell, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  153. Legube G, Linares LK, Tyteca S, Caron C, Scheffner M, Chevillard-Briet M, Trouche D; ''Role of the histone acetyl transferase Tip60 in the p53 pathway.''; J Biol Chem, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  154. Kaneko H, Orii KO, Matsui E, Shimozawa N, Fukao T, Matsumoto T, Shimamoto A, Furuichi Y, Hayakawa S, Kasahara K, Kondo N; ''BLM (the causative gene of Bloom syndrome) protein translocation into the nucleus by a nuclear localization signal.''; Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  155. Bhoumik A, Ronai Z; ''ATF2: a transcription factor that elicits oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities.''; Cell Cycle, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  156. Aguilar-Quesada R, Muñoz-Gámez JA, Martín-Oliva D, Peralta A, Valenzuela MT, Matínez-Romero R, Quiles-Pérez R, Menissier-de Murcia J, de Murcia G, Ruiz de Almodóvar M, Oliver FJ; ''Interaction between ATM and PARP-1 in response to DNA damage and sensitization of ATM deficient cells through PARP inhibition.''; BMC Mol Biol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  157. Sage JM, Gildemeister OS, Knight KL; ''Discovery of a novel function for human Rad51: maintenance of the mitochondrial genome.''; J Biol Chem, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  158. Stevens C, Smith L, La Thangue NB; ''Chk2 activates E2F-1 in response to DNA damage.''; Nat Cell Biol, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  159. Doyon Y, Selleck W, Lane WS, Tan S, Côté J; ''Structural and functional conservation of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex from yeast to humans.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  160. Kim ST, Xu B, Kastan MB; ''Involvement of the cohesin protein, Smc1, in Atm-dependent and independent responses to DNA damage.''; Genes Dev, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  161. Levkau B, Koyama H, Raines EW, Clurman BE, Herren B, Orth K, Roberts JM, Ross R; ''Cleavage of p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1 mediates apoptosis in endothelial cells through activation of Cdk2: role of a caspase cascade.''; Mol Cell, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  162. Genschel J, Modrich P; ''Mechanism of 5'-directed excision in human mismatch repair.''; Mol Cell, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  163. Swanton E, Bishop N, Woodman P; ''Human rabaptin-5 is selectively cleaved by caspase-3 during apoptosis.''; J Biol Chem, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  164. Sun Y, Jiang X, Chen S, Fernandes N, Price BD; ''A role for the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase in the acetylation and activation of ATM.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  165. Hartley KO, Gell D, Smith GC, Zhang H, Divecha N, Connelly MA, Admon A, Lees-Miller SP, Anderson CW, Jackson SP; ''DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit: a relative of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the ataxia telangiectasia gene product.''; Cell, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  166. Srivastava N, Gochhait S, de Boer P, Bamezai RN; ''Role of H2AX in DNA damage response and human cancers.''; Mutat Res, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  167. Chen BP, Uematsu N, Kobayashi J, Lerenthal Y, Krempler A, Yajima H, Löbrich M, Shiloh Y, Chen DJ; ''Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is essential for DNA-PKcs phosphorylations at the Thr-2609 cluster upon DNA double strand break.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  168. Poyurovsky MV, Katz C, Laptenko O, Beckerman R, Lokshin M, Ahn J, Byeon IJ, Gabizon R, Mattia M, Zupnick A, Brown LM, Friedler A, Prives C; ''The C terminus of p53 binds the N-terminal domain of MDM2.''; Nat Struct Mol Biol, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  169. Brown AL, Lee CH, Schwarz JK, Mitiku N, Piwnica-Worms H, Chung JH; ''A human Cds1-related kinase that functions downstream of ATM protein in the cellular response to DNA damage.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  170. Xiao Z, Chen Z, Gunasekera AH, Sowin TJ, Rosenberg SH, Fesik S, Zhang H; ''Chk1 mediates S and G2 arrests through Cdc25A degradation in response to DNA-damaging agents.''; J Biol Chem, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  171. Kitao H, Yuan ZM; ''Regulation of ionizing radiation-induced Rad52 nuclear foci formation by c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation.''; J Biol Chem, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  172. Ziv Y, Bielopolski D, Galanty Y, Lukas C, Taya Y, Schultz DC, Lukas J, Bekker-Jensen S, Bartek J, Shiloh Y; ''Chromatin relaxation in response to DNA double-strand breaks is modulated by a novel ATM- and KAP-1 dependent pathway.''; Nat Cell Biol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  173. Clerici M, Mourão A, Gutsche I, Gehring NH, Hentze MW, Kulozik A, Kadlec J, Sattler M, Cusack S; ''Unusual bipartite mode of interaction between the nonsense-mediated decay factors, UPF1 and UPF2.''; EMBO J, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  174. Morgan MA, Lawrence TS; ''Molecular Pathways: Overcoming Radiation Resistance by Targeting DNA Damage Response Pathways.''; Clin Cancer Res, 2015 PubMed Europe PMC
  175. Pan G, O'Rourke K, Dixit VM; ''Caspase-9, Bcl-XL, and Apaf-1 form a ternary complex.''; J Biol Chem, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  176. Yuan J, Adamski R, Chen J; ''Focus on histone variant H2AX: to be or not to be.''; FEBS Lett, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  177. Baksh S, Tommasi S, Fenton S, Yu VC, Martins LM, Pfeifer GP, Latif F, Downward J, Neel BG; ''The tumor suppressor RASSF1A and MAP-1 link death receptor signaling to Bax conformational change and cell death.''; Mol Cell, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  178. Lee Bi BI, Nguyen LH, Barsky D, Fernandes M, Wilson DM 3rd; ''Molecular interactions of human Exo1 with DNA.''; Nucleic Acid Res, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  179. Neuman E, Sellers WR, McNeil JA, Lawrence JB, Kaelin WG Jr; ''Structure and partial genomic sequence of the human E2F1 gene.''; Gene, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  180. Soung YH, Lee JW, Kim SY, Park WS, Nam SW, Lee JY, Yoo NJ, Lee SH; ''Mutational analysis of proapoptotic caspase-9 gene in common human carcinomas.''; APMIS, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  181. Rhéaume E, Cohen LY, Uhlmann F, Lazure C, Alam A, Hurwitz J, Sékaly RP, Denis F; ''The large subunit of replication factor C is a substrate for caspase-3 in vitro and is cleaved by a caspase-3-like protease during Fas-mediated apoptosis.''; EMBO J, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  182. Taniguchi T, Garcia-Higuera I, Andreassen PR, Gregory RC, Grompe M, D'Andrea AD; ''S-phase-specific interaction of the Fanconi anemia protein, FANCD2, with BRCA1 and RAD51.''; Blood, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  183. Shiloh Y; ''ATM and related protein kinases: safeguarding genome integrity.''; Nat Rev Cancer, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  184. Maya R, Balass M, Kim ST, Shkedy D, Leal JF, Shifman O, Moas M, Buschmann T, Ronai Z, Shiloh Y, Kastan MB, Katzir E, Oren M; ''ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Mdm2 on serine 395: role in p53 activation by DNA damage.''; Genes Dev, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  185. Wolff S, Afzal V, Wiencke JK, Olivieri G, Michaeli A; ''Human lymphocytes exposed to low doses of ionizing radiations become refractory to high doses of radiation as well as to chemical mutagens that induce double-strand breaks in DNA.''; Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  186. Sabatel H, Pirlot C, Piette J, Habraken Y; ''Importance of PIKKs in NF-κB activation by genotoxic stress.''; Biochem Pharmacol, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC
  187. Renshaw SA, Dempsey CE, Barnes FA, Bagstaff SM, Dower SK, Bingle CD, Whyte MK; ''Three novel Bid proteins generated by alternative splicing of the human Bid gene.''; J Biol Chem, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  188. Sherr CJ; ''Divorcing ARF and p53: an unsettled case.''; Nat Rev Cancer, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  189. Bartek J, Lukas J; ''Chk1 and Chk2 kinases in checkpoint control and cancer.''; Cancer Cell, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  190. Matsuoka S, Huang M, Elledge SJ; ''Linkage of ATM to cell cycle regulation by the Chk2 protein kinase.''; Science, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  191. Deardorff MA, Kaur M, Yaeger D, Rampuria A, Korolev S, Pie J, Gil-Rodríguez C, Arnedo M, Loeys B, Kline AD, Wilson M, Lillquist K, Siu V, Ramos FJ, Musio A, Jackson LS, Dorsett D, Krantz ID; ''Mutations in cohesin complex members SMC3 and SMC1A cause a mild variant of cornelia de Lange syndrome with predominant mental retardation.''; Am J Hum Genet, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  192. Stolz A, Ertych N, Kienitz A, Vogel C, Schneider V, Fritz B, Jacob R, Dittmar G, Weichert W, Petersen I, Bastians H; ''The CHK2-BRCA1 tumour suppressor pathway ensures chromosomal stability in human somatic cells.''; Mat Cell Biol, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  193. Yuan ZM, Utsugisawa T, Huang Y, Ishiko T, Nakada S, Kharbanda S, Weichselbaum R, Kufe D; ''Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by c-Abl in the genotoxic stress response.''; J Biol Chem, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  194. Riches LC, Lynch AM, Gooderham NJ; ''Early events in the mammalian response to DNA double-strand breaks.''; Mutagenesis, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  195. Ding C, Li Y, Kim BJ, Malovannaya A, Jung SY, Wang Y, Qin J; ''Quantitative analysis of cohesin complex stoichiometry and SMC3 modification-dependent protein interactions.''; J Proteome Res, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC
  196. Bitomsky N, Hofmann TG; ''Apoptosis and autophagy: Regulation of apoptosis by DNA damage signalling - roles of p53, p73 and HIPK2.''; FEBS J, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  197. Bauerschmidt C, Woodcock M, Stevens DL, Hill MA, Rothkamm K, Helleday T; ''Cohesin phosphorylation and mobility of SMC1 at ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in human cells.''; Exp Cell Res, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC
  198. Falck J, Mailand N, Syljuåsen RG, Bartek J, Lukas J; ''The ATM-Chk2-Cdc25A checkpoint pathway guards against radioresistant DNA synthesis.''; Nature, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  199. Lee JS, Collins KM, Brown AL, Lee CH, Chung JH; ''hCds1-mediated phosphorylation of BRCA1 regulates the DNA damage response.''; Nature, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  200. North P, Ganesh A, Thacker J; ''The rejoining of double-strand breaks in DNA by human cell extracts.''; Nucleic Acids Res, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  201. Sørensen CS, Syljuåsen RG, Falck J, Schroeder T, Rönnstrand L, Khanna KK, Zhou BB, Bartek J, Lukas J; ''Chk1 regulates the S phase checkpoint by coupling the physiological turnover and ionizing radiation-induced accelerated proteolysis of Cdc25A.''; Cancer Cell, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  202. Wang H, Zhao A, Chen L, Zhong X, Liao J, Gao M, Cai M, Lee DH, Li J, Chowdhury D, Yang YG, Pfeifer GP, Yen Y, Xu X; ''Human RIF1 encodes an anti-apoptotic factor required for DNA repair.''; Carcinogenesis, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  203. Filippini1 SE, Vega A; ''Breast cancer genes: beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2.''; Front Biosci, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  204. Lin J, Zhu MH; ''[Interactive pathway of ARF-mdm2-p53].''; Ai Zheng, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  205. Koida N, Ozaki T, Yamamoto H, Ono S, Koda T, Ando K, Okoshi R, Kamijo T, Omura K, Nakagawara A; ''Inhibitory role of Plk1 in the regulation of p73-dependent apoptosis through physical interaction and phosphorylation.''; J Biol Chem, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  206. Allard S, Utley RT, Savard J, Clarke A, Grant P, Brandl CJ, Pillus L, Workman JL, Côté J; ''NuA4, an essential transcription adaptor/histone H4 acetyltransferase complex containing Esa1p and the ATM-related cofactor Tra1p.''; EMBO J, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  207. Thacker J, Ganesh AN; ''DNA-break repair, radioresistance of DNA synthesis, and camptothecin sensitivity in the radiation-sensitive irs mutants: comparisons to ataxia-telangiectasia cells.''; Mutat Res, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  208. Sedukhina A, Fukuda T, Ohta T.; ''[BRCA1 and DNA damage response].''; Seikagaku, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC
  209. Rotman G, Shiloh Y; ''Ataxia-telangiectasia: is ATM a sensor of oxidative damage and stress?''; Bioessays, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  210. Zhang X, Succi J, Feng Z, Prithivirajsingh S, Story MD, Legerski RJ; ''Artemis is a phosphorylation target of ATM and ATR and is involved in the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint response.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  211. Moroni MC, Hickman ES, Lazzerini Denchi E, Caprara G, Colli E, Cecconi F, Müller H, Helin K; ''Apaf-1 is a transcriptional target for E2F and p53.''; Nat. Cell Biol., 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  212. Musio A, Montagna C, Mariani T, Tilenni M, Focarelli ML, Brait L, Indino E, Benedetti PA, Chessa L, Albertini A, Ried T, Vezzoni P; ''SMC1 involvement in fragile site expression.''; Hum Mol Genet, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  213. Van der Schans GP, Paterson MC, Cross WG; ''DNA strand break and rejoining in cultured human fibroblasts exposed to fast neutrons or gamma rays.''; Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med, 1983 PubMed Europe PMC
  214. Wang C, Rauscher FJ 3rd, Cress WD, Chen J; ''Regulation of E2F1 function by the nuclear corepressor KAP1.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  215. Lu PY, Lévesque N, Kobor MS; ''NuA4 and SWR1-C: two chromatin-modifying complexes with overlapping functions and components.''; Biochem Cell Biol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  216. Luo H, Li Y, Mu JJ, Zhang J, Tonaka T, Hamamori Y, Jung SY, Wang Y, Qin J; ''Regulation of intra-S phase checkpoint by ionizing radiation (IR)-dependent and IR-independent phosphorylation of SMC3.''; J Biol Chem, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  217. Kurumizaka H, Aihara H, Kagawa W, Shibata T, Yokoyama S; ''Human Rad51 amino acid residues required for Rad52 binding.''; J Mol Biol, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  218. Jeffers LJ, Coull BJ, Stack SJ, Morrison CG; ''Distinct BRCT domains in Mcph1/Brit1 mediate ionizing radiation-induced focus formation and centrosomal localization.''; Oncogene, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  219. Park Y, Park J, Lee Y, Lim W, Oh BC, Shin C, Kim W; ''Mammalian MST2 kinase and human Salvador activate and reduce estrogen receptor alpha in the absence of ligand.''; J Mol Med (Berl), 2011 PubMed Europe PMC
  220. Zakut-Houri R, Bienz-Tadmor B, Givol D, Oren M; ''Human p53 cellular tumor antigen: cDNA sequence and expression in COS cells.''; EMBO J, 1985 PubMed Europe PMC
  221. Kiefer MC, Brauer MJ, Powers VC, Wu JJ, Umansky SR, Tomei LD, Barr PJ; ''Modulation of apoptosis by the widely distributed Bcl-2 homologue Bak.''; Nature, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  222. Uto K, Inoue D, Shimuta K, Nakajo N, Sagata N; ''Chk1, but not Chk2, inhibits Cdc25 phosphatases by a novel common mechanism.''; EMBO J, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  223. Banin S, Moyal L, Shieh S, Taya Y, Anderson CW, Chessa L, Smorodinsky NI, Prives C, Reiss Y, Shiloh Y, Ziv Y; ''nhanced phosphorylation of p53 by ATM in response to DNA damage.''; Science, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  224. Montes de Oca R, Andreassen PR, Margossian SP, Gregory RC, Taniguchi T, Wang X, Houghtaling S, Grompe M, D'Andrea AD; ''Regulated interaction of the Fanconi anemia protein, FANCD2, with chromatin.''; Blood, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  225. Turowski P, Franckhauser C, Morris MC, Vaglio P, Fernandez A, Lamb NJ; ''Functional cdc25C dual-specificity phosphatase is required for S-phase entry in human cells.''; Mol Biol Cell, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  226. Buheitel J, Stemmann O; ''Prophase pathway-dependent removal of cohesin from human chromosomes requires opening of the Smc3-Scc1 gate.''; EMBO J, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  227. Jha S, Shibata E, Dutta A; ''Human Rvb1/Tip49 is required for the histone acetyltransferase activity of Tip60/NuA4 and for the downregulation of phosphorylation on H2AX after DNA damage.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  228. Levy D, Adamovich Y, Reuven N, Shaul Y; ''Yap1 phosphorylation by c-Abl is a critical step in selective activation of proapoptotic genes in response to DNA damage.''; Mol Cell, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  229. Ziółkowska-Suchanek I, Mosor M, Wierzbicka M, Rydzanicz M, Baranowska M, Nowak J; ''The MRN protein complex genes: MRE11 and RAD50 and susceptibility to head and neck cancers.''; Mol Cancer, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  230. Lykke-Andersen J, Shu MD, Steitz JA; ''Human Upf proteins target an mRNA for nonsense-mediated decay when bound downstream of a termination codon.''; Cell, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  231. Hussain S, Wilson JB, Medhurst AL, Hejna J, Witt E, Ananth S, Davies A, Masson JY, Moses R, West SC, de Winter JP, Ashworth A, Jones NJ, Mathew CG; ''Direct interaction of FANCD2 with BRCA2 in DNA damage response pathways.''; Hum Mol Genet, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  232. Kharbanda S, Pandey P, Jin S, Inoue S, Bharti A, Yuan ZM, Weichselbaum R, Weaver D, Kufe D; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC
  233. Gross A; ''BID as a double agent in cell life and death.''; Cell Cycle, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  234. Thompson LH; ''Recognition, signaling, and repair of DNA double-strand breaks produced by ionizing radiation in mammalian cells: the molecular choreography.''; Mutat Res, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC
  235. Franchitto A, Pichierri P; ''Bloom's syndrome protein is required for correct relocalization of RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 complex after replication fork arrest.''; J Cell Biol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  236. Yan Q, Xu R, Zhu L, Cheng X, Wang Z, Manis J, Shipp MA; ''BAL1 and its partner E3 ligase, BBAP, link Poly(ADP-ribose) activation, ubiquitylation, and double-strand DNA repair independent of ATM, MDC1, and RNF8.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  237. Honda M, Okuno Y, Yoo J, Ha T, Spies M; ''Tyrosine phosphorylation enhances RAD52-mediated annealing by modulating its DNA binding.''; EMBO J, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC
  238. Guerrero AD, Chen M, Wang J; ''Delineation of the caspase-9 signaling cascade.''; Apoptosis, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  239. Trimborn M, Bell SM, Felix C, Rashid Y, Jafri H, Griffiths PD, Neumann LM, Krebs A, Reis A, Sperling K, Neitzel H, Jackson AP; ''Mutations in microcephalin cause aberrant regulation of chromosome condensation.''; Am J Hum Genet, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  240. Sapountzi V, Logan IR, Robson CN; ''Cellular functions of TIP60.''; Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  241. Zhong X, Pfeifer GP, Xu X; ''Microcephalin encodes a centrosomal protein.''; Cell Cycle, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  242. Gatei M, Zhou BB, Hobson K, Scott S, Young D, Khanna KK; ''Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and ATM and Rad3 related kinase mediate phosphorylation of Brca1 at distinct and overlapping sites. In vivo assessment using phospho-specific antibodies.''; J Biol Chem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  243. Guo C, Zhang X, Pfeifer GP; ''The tumor suppressor RASSF1A prevents dephosphorylation of the mammalian STE20-like kinases MST1 and MST2.''; J Biol Chem, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC
  244. Nourani A, Doyon Y, Utley RT, Allard S, Lane WS, Côté J; ''Role of an ING1 growth regulator in transcriptional activation and targeted histone acetylation by the NuA4 complex.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  245. Yang X, Yu K, Hao Y, Li DM, Stewart R, Insogna KL, Xu T; ''LATS1 tumour suppressor affects cytokinesis by inhibiting LIMK1.''; Nat Cell Biol, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  246. Smits VA, Warmerdam DO, Martin Y, Freire R; ''Mechanisms of ATR-mediated checkpoint signalling.''; Front Biosci (Landmark Ed), 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  247. Inoue K, Fry EA; ''Aberrant splicing of the DMP1-ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway in cancer.''; Int J Cancer, 2016 PubMed Europe PMC
  248. Cotta-Ramusino C, McDonald ER 3rd, Hurov K, Sowa ME, Harper JW, Elledge SJ; ''A DNA damage response screen identifies RHINO, a 9-1-1 and TopBP1 interacting protein required for ATR signaling.''; Science, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC
  249. Ward JF; ''DNA damage and repair.''; Basic Life Sci, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  250. Schuler M, Green DR; ''Mechanisms of p53-dependent apoptosis.''; Biochem Soc Trans, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  251. Iyer RR, Pluciennik A, Burdett V, Modrich PL; ''DNA mismatch repair: functions and mechanisms.''; Chem Rev, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  252. Zhao H, Piwnica-Worms H; ''ATR-mediated checkpoint pathways regulate phosphorylation and activation of human Chk1.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  253. Ellis NA, Groden J, Ye TZ, Straughen J, Lennon DJ, Ciocci S, Proytcheva M, German J; ''The Bloom's syndrome gene product is homologous to RecQ helicases.''; Cell, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  254. Ye H, Arron JR, Lamothe B, Cirilli M, Kobayashi T, Shevde NK, Segal D, Dzivenu OK, Vologodskaia M, Yim M, Du K, Singh S, Pike JW, Darnay BG, Choi Y, Wu H; ''Distinct molecular mechanism for initiating TRAF6 signalling.''; Nature, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  255. Wei MC, Lindsten T, Mootha VK, Weiler S, Gross A, Ashiya M, Thompson CB, Korsmeyer SJ; ''tBID, a membrane-targeted death ligand, oligomerizes BAK to release cytochrome c.''; Genes Dev, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  256. Zhao LY, Liu J, Sidhu GS, Niu Y, Liu Y, Wang R, Liao D; ''Negative regulation of p53 functions by Daxx and the involvement of MDM2.''; J Biol Chem, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  257. Kao J, Milano MT, Javaheri A, Garofalo MC, Chmura SJ, Weichselbaum RR, Kron SJ; ''gamma-H2AX as a therapeutic target for improving the efficacy of radiation therapy.''; Curr Cancer Drug Targets, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  258. Matallanas D, Romano D, Yee K, Meissl K, Kucerova L, Piazzolla D, Baccarini M, Vass JK, Kolch W, O'neill E; ''RASSF1A elicits apoptosis through an MST2 pathway directing proapoptotic transcription by the p73 tumor suppressor protein.''; Mol Cell, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  259. De Laurenzi V, Costanzo A, Barcaroli D, Terrinoni A, Falco M, Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli M, Levrero M, Melino G; ''Two new p73 splice variants, gamma and delta, with different transcriptional activity.''; J Exp Med, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  260. Tsao CC, Geisen C, Abraham RT; ''Interaction between human MCM7 and Rad17 proteins is required for replication checkpoint signaling.''; EMBO J, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  261. Vilenchik MM, Knudson AG; ''Endogenous DNA double-strand breaks: production, fidelity of repair, and induction of cancer.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  262. Seelan RS, Irwin M, van der Stoop P, Qian C, Kaelin WG Jr, Liu W; ''The human p73 promoter: characterization and identification of functional E2F binding sites.''; Neoplasia, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  263. Smits VA, Reaper PM, Jackson SP; ''Rapid PIKK-dependent release of Chk1 from chromatin promotes the DNA-damage checkpoint response.''; Curr Biol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  264. Ma Z, Lin M, Li K, Fu Y, Liu X, Yang D, Zhao Y, Zheng J, Sun B; ''Knocking down SMC1A inhibits growth and leads to G2/M arrest in human glioma cells.''; Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  265. Strausfeld U, Fernandez A, Capony JP, Girard F, Lautredou N, Derancourt J, Labbe JC, Lamb NJ; ''Activation of p34cdc2 protein kinase by microinjection of human cdc25C into mammalian cells. Requirement for prior phosphorylation of cdc25C by p34cdc2 on sites phosphorylated at mitosis.''; J Biol Chem, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  266. Liang Y, Yang G, Liu F, Wang Y; ''Monte Carlo simulation of ionizing radiation induced DNA strand breaks utilizing coarse grained high-order chromatin structures.''; Phys Med Biol, 2016 PubMed Europe PMC
  267. Gerlitz G; ''HMGNs, DNA repair and cancer.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  268. Saleh A, Srinivasula SM, Acharya S, Fishel R, Alnemri ES; ''Cytochrome c and dATP-mediated oligomerization of Apaf-1 is a prerequisite for procaspase-9 activation.''; JBC, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  269. Singleton MR, Wentzell LM, Liu Y, West SC, Wigley DB; ''Structure of the single-strand annealing domain of human RAD52 protein.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  270. Yang SZ, Lin FT, Lin WC; ''MCPH1/BRIT1 cooperates with E2F1 in the activation of checkpoint, DNA repair and apoptosis.''; EMBO Rep, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  271. Bhoumik A, Lopez-Bergami P, Ronai Z; ''ATF2 on the double - activating transcription factor and DNA damage response protein.''; Pigment Cell Res, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  272. Lee JH, Kim HS, Lee SJ, Kim KT; ''Stabilization and activation of p53 induced by Cdk5 contributes to neuronal cell death.''; J Cell Sci, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  273. Du Y, Zhou J, Fan J, Shen Z, Chen X; ''Streamline proteomic approach for characterizing protein-protein interaction network in a RAD52 protein complex.''; J Proteome Res, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  274. Park JY, Yoo HW, Kim BR, Park R, Choi SY, Kim Y; ''Identification of a novel human Rad51 variant that promotes DNA strand exchange.''; Nucleic Acids Res, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  275. Wang X, Khaleque MA, Zhao MJ, Zhong R, Gaestel M, Calderwood SK; ''Phosphorylation of HSF1 by MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 on serine 121, inhibits transcriptional activity and promotes HSP90 binding.''; J Biol Chem, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  276. Ahn J, Urist M, Prives C; ''The Chk2 protein kinase.''; DNA Repair (Amst), 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  277. Blasina A, de Weyer IV, Laus MC, Luyten WH, Parker AE, McGowan CH; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC
  278. Pichierri P, Rosselli F; ''The DNA crosslink-induced S-phase checkpoint depends on ATR-CHK1 and ATR-NBS1-FANCD2 pathways.''; EMBO J, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  279. Restle A, Janz C, Wiesmüller L; ''Differences in the association of p53 phosphorylated on serine 15 and key enzymes of homologous recombination.''; Oncogene, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  280. Friedman JR, Fredericks WJ, Jensen DE, Speicher DW, Huang XP, Neilson EG, Rauscher FJ 3rd; ''KAP-1, a novel corepressor for the highly conserved KRAB repression domain.''; Genes Dev, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  281. Ho GP, Margossian S, Taniguchi T, D'Andrea AD; ''Phosphorylation of FANCD2 on two novel sites is required for mitomycin C resistance.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  282. DiTullio RA Jr, Mochan TA, Venere M, Bartkova J, Sehested M, Bartek J, Halazonetis TD; ''53BP1 functions in an ATM-dependent checkpoint pathway that is constitutively activated in human cancer.''; Nat Cell Biol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  283. Li X, Lin HH, Chen H, Xu X, Shih HM, Ann DK; ''SUMOylation of the transcriptional co-repressor KAP1 is regulated by the serine and threonine phosphatase PP1.''; Sci Signal, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  284. Riley T, Sontag E, Chen P, Levine A; ''Transcriptional control of human p53-regulated genes.''; Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  285. Chen K, Hu Z, Wang LE, Zhang W, El-Naggar AK, Sturgis EM, Wei Q; ''Polymorphic TP53BP1 and TP53 gene interactions associated with risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.''; Clin Cancer Res, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  286. Kamer I, Sarig R, Zaltsman Y, Niv H, Oberkovitz G, Regev L, Haimovich G, Lerenthal Y, Marcellus RC, Gross A; ''Proapoptotic BID is an ATM effector in the DNA-damage response.''; Cell, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  287. Kaelin WG Jr; ''The emerging p53 gene family.''; J Natl Cancer Inst, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  288. Karayan L, Riou JF, Séité P, Migeon J, Cantereau A, Larsen CJ; ''Human ARF protein interacts with topoisomerase I and stimulates its activity.''; Oncogene, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  289. Graves PR, Yu L, Schwarz JK, Gales J, Sausville EA, O'Connor PM, Piwnica-Worms H; ''The Chk1 protein kinase and the Cdc25C regulatory pathways are targets of the anticancer agent UCN-01.''; J Biol Chem, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  290. Blattner C, Hay T, Meek DW, Lane DP; ''Hypophosphorylation of Mdm2 augments p53 stability.''; 2002, Mol Cell Biol PubMed Europe PMC
  291. Xu L, Blackburn EH; ''Human Rif1 protein binds aberrant telomeres and aligns along anaphase midzone microtubules.''; J Cell Biol, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  292. Silverman J, Takai H, Buonomo SB, Eisenhaber F, de Lange T; ''Human Rif1, ortholog of a yeast telomeric protein, is regulated by ATM and 53BP1 and functions in the S-phase checkpoint.''; Genes Dev, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  293. Zinkel SS; ''Investigation of the proapoptotic BCL-2 family member bid on the crossroad of the DNA damage response and apoptosis.''; Methods Enzymol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  294. Cory S, Huang DC, Adams JM; ''The Bcl-2 family: roles in cell survival and oncogenesis.''; Oncogene, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  295. Cardone MH, Roy N, Stennicke HR, Salvesen GS, Franke TF, Stanbridge E, Frisch S, Reed JC; ''Regulation of cell death protease caspase-9 by phosphorylation.''; Science, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  296. Nechushtan A, Smith CL, Hsu YT, Youle RJ; ''Conformation of the Bax C-terminus regulates subcellular location and cell death.''; EMBO J, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  297. Garcia-Cruz R, Brieño MA, Roig I, Grossmann M, Velilla E, Pujol A, Cabero L, Pessarrodona A, Barbero JL, Garcia Caldés M; ''Dynamics of cohesin proteins REC8, STAG3, SMC1 beta and SMC3 are consistent with a role in sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis in human oocytes.''; Hum Reprod, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  298. Kastan MB, Lim DS; ''The many substrates and functions of ATM.''; Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  299. Huen MS, Grant R, Manke I, Minn K, Yu X, Yaffe MB, Chen J; ''RNF8 transduces the DNA-damage signal via histone ubiquitylation and checkpoint protein assembly.''; Cell, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  300. Bidou L, Allamand V, Rousset JP, Namy O; ''Sense from nonsense: therapies for premature stop codon diseases.''; Trends Mol Med, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC
  301. O'Neill E, Rushworth L, Baccarini M, Kolch W; ''Role of the kinase MST2 in suppression of apoptosis by the proto-oncogene product Raf-1.''; Science, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  302. Shivakumar L, Minna J, Sakamaki T, Pestell R, White MA; ''The RASSF1A tumor suppressor blocks cell cycle progression and inhibits cyclin D1 accumulation.''; Mol Cell Biol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  303. Guo Y, Guettouche T, Fenna M, Boellmann F, Pratt WB, Toft DO, Smith DF, Voellmy R; ''Evidence for a mechanism of repression of heat shock factor 1 transcriptional activity by a multichaperone complex.''; J Biol Chem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  304. Lukas C, Melander F, Stucki M, Falck J, Bekker-Jensen S, Goldberg M, Lerenthal Y, Jackson SP, Bartek J, Lukas J; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC
  305. Malladi S, Challa-Malladi M, Fearnhead HO, Bratton SB; ''The Apaf-1*procaspase-9 apoptosome complex functions as a proteolytic-based molecular timer.''; EMBO J, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  306. Mailand N, Bekker-Jensen S, Faustrup H, Melander F, Bartek J, Lukas C, Lukas J; ''RNF8 ubiquitylates histones at DNA double-strand breaks and promotes assembly of repair proteins.''; Cell, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  307. O'Neill T, Giarratani L, Chen P, Iyer L, Lee CH, Bobiak M, Kanai F, Zhou BB, Chung JH, Rathbun GA; ''Determination of substrate motifs for human Chk1 and hCds1/Chk2 by the oriented peptide library approach.''; J Biol Chem, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  308. Travali S, Ku DH, Rizzo MG, Ottavio L, Baserga R, Calabretta B; ''Structure of the human gene for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen.''; J Biol Chem, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC
  309. Haince JF, McDonald D, Rodrigue A, Déry U, Masson JY, Hendzel MJ, Poirier GG; ''PARP1-dependent kinetics of recruitment of MRE11 and NBS1 proteins to multiple DNA damage sites.''; J Biol Chem, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  310. Li L, Peterson CA, Kanter-Smoler G, Wei YF, Ramagli LS, Sunnerhagen P, Siciliano MJ, Legerski RJ; ''hRAD17, a structural homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RAD17 cell cycle checkpoint gene, stimulates p53 accumulation.''; Oncogene, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  311. Krum SA, la Rosa Dalugdugan Ed, Miranda-Carboni GA, Lane TF; ''BRCA1 Forms a Functional Complex with γ-H2AX as a Late Response to Genotoxic Stress.''; J Nucleic Acids, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  312. Almendral JM, Huebsch D, Blundell PA, Macdonald-Bravo H, Bravo R; ''Cloning and sequence of the human nuclear protein cyclin: homology with DNA-binding proteins.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1987 PubMed Europe PMC
  313. Kumagai A, Dunphy WG; ''Claspin, a novel protein required for the activation of Chk1 during a DNA replication checkpoint response in Xenopus egg extracts.''; Mol Cell, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  314. Stucki M, Jackson SP; ''gammaH2AX and MDC1: anchoring the DNA-damage-response machinery to broken chromosomes.''; DNA Repair (Amst), 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  315. Stewart GS, Wang B, Bignell CR, Taylor AM, Elledge SJ; ''MDC1 is a mediator of the mammalian DNA damage checkpoint.''; Nature, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  316. ''''; ,
  317. Adams JM; ''Ways of dying: multiple pathways to apoptosis.''; Genes Dev, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  318. Jowsey P, Morrice NA, Hastie CJ, McLauchlan H, Toth R, Rouse J; ''Characterisation of the sites of DNA damage-induced 53BP1 phosphorylation catalysed by ATM and ATR.''; DNA Repair(Amst), 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  319. Oltvai ZN, Milliman CL, Korsmeyer SJ; ''Bcl-2 heterodimerizes in vivo with a conserved homolog, Bax, that accelerates programmed cell death.''; Cell, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  320. Rappold I, Iwabuchi K, Date T, Chen J; ''Tumor suppressor p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) is involved in DNA damage-signaling pathways.''; J Cell Biol, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  321. Lamb, P, Crawford, L; ''Characterization of the human p53 gene.''; Mol Cell Biol, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC
  322. Bolderson E, Tomimatsu N, Richard DJ, Boucher D, Kumar R, Pandita TK, Burma S, Khanna KK; ''Phosphorylation of Exo1 modulates homologous recombination repair of DNA double-strand breaks.''; Nucleic Acid Res, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  323. Bekker-Jensen S, Lukas C, Melander F, Bartek J, Lukas J; ''Dynamic assembly and sustained retention of 53BP1 at the sites of DNA damage are controlled by Mdc1/NFBD1.''; J Cell Biol, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  324. Genschel J, Bazemore LR, Modrich P; ''Human exonuclease I is required for 5' and 3' mismatch repair.''; J Biol Chem, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  325. Khanna KK, Lavin MF; ''Ionizing radiation and UV induction of p53 protein by different pathways in ataxia-telangiectasia cells.''; Oncogene, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  326. Chen G, Lee EYHP; ''The product of the ATM gene is a 370-kDa nuclear phosphoprotein.''; J Biol Chem, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  327. Vasileva A, Hopkins KM, Wang X, Weissbach MM, Friedman RA, Wolgemuth DJ, Lieberman HB; ''The DNA damage checkpoint protein RAD9A is essential for male meiosis in the mouse.''; J Cell Sci, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  328. Kolas NK, Chapman JR, Nakada S, Ylanko J, Chahwan R, Sweeney FD, Panier S, Mendez M, Wildenhain J, Thomson TM, Pelletier L, Jackson SP, Durocher D; ''Orchestration of the DNA-damage response by the RNF8 ubiquitin ligase.''; Science, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  329. Li M, Yu X; ''Function of BRCA1 in the DNA damage response is mediated by ADP-ribosylation.''; Cancer Cell, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  330. Kampinga HH, Laszlo A; ''DNA double strand breaks do not play a role in heat-induced cell killing.''; Cancer Res, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  331. Harris SL, Levine AJ; ''The p53 pathway: positive and negative feedback loops.''; Oncogene, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  332. Yuan S, Topf M, Reubold TF, Eschenburg S, Akey CW; ''Changes in Apaf-1 conformation that drive apoptosome assembly.''; Biochemistry, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  333. Mittl PR, Di Marco S, Krebs JF, Bai X, Karanewsky DS, Priestle JP, Tomaselli KJ, Grütter MG; ''Structure of recombinant human CPP32 in complex with the tetrapeptide acetyl-Asp-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone.''; J Biol Chem, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  334. Lee JH, Mand MR, Deshpande RA, Kinoshita E, Yang SH, Wyman C, Paull TT; ''Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase activity is regulated by ATP-driven conformational changes in the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex.''; J Biol Chem, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC
  335. Lin, WC, Lin FT, Nevins, JR; ''Selective induction of E2F1 in response to DNA damage, mediated by ATM-dependent phosphorylation.''; Genes Dev, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  336. Khanna KK, Keating KE, Kozlov S, Scott S, Gatei M, Hobson K, Taya Y, Gabrielli B, Chan D, Lees-Miller SP, Lavin MF; ''ATM associates with and phosphorylates p53: mapping the region of interaction.''; Nat Genet, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  337. Huang J, Gong Z, Ghosal G, Chen J; ''SOSS complexes participate in the maintenance of genomic stability.''; Mol Cell, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  338. Erzgräber G, Rosemann M, Regel K, Abel H; ''DNA structures and radiation injury.''; Adv Space Res, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  339. Chittenden T, Flemington C, Houghton AB, Ebb RG, Gallo GJ, Elangovan B, Chinnadurai G, Lutz RJ; ''A conserved domain in Bak, distinct from BH1 and BH2, mediates cell death and protein binding functions.''; EMBO J, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  340. Terret ME, Sherwood R, Rahman S, Qin J, Jallepalli PV; ''Cohesin acetylation speeds the replication fork.''; Nature, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  341. Freie BW, Ciccone SL, Li X, Plett PA, Orschell CM, Srour EF, Hanenberg H, Schindler D, Lee SH, Clapp DW; ''A role for the Fanconi anemia C protein in maintaining the DN