Factors and pathways affecting insulin-like growth factor (IGF1)-Akt signaling (Homo sapiens)

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1Skeletal muscle cellMURF1FoxO PTENIGF1recProtein synthesisNEBJNKTNFaMAFbxActRIIBILKmTORC1mTORC2SMAD3TNFaTWEAKActin polymerization& MyofibrillogenesisN-WASPPLD14EPBTNFrecMyostatinPGC1Integrin B1PI3KIGFBP5NFKB1TNFrecSMAD2AMPKAKT1S6KEIF2B2LC3PDK1IRS1IGF1GSK3BMTORamino acidsAMPKProtein degradationProtein synthesis


The signaling pathway that involves insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and a variety of other components that affect the pathway, plays an important role in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. The kinase Akt, or protein kinase B (PKB), is a central component in the pathway and is involved in both muscle synthesis, through mammalian target of rapmycin (mTOR) and glycogen synthase kinase 3B (GSK3B), and muscle degradation, through the transcription factors of the FoxO family. The pathway also involves several feedback loops such as the negative feedback of S6K, phosphorylated by mTORC1, which inhibits IRS, or the positive feedback of mTORC2, which is necessary to maximize the activation of Akt. A variety of other factors and pathways also influence the IGF1-Akt signaling pathway at various points.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Schiaffino S, Mammucari C; ''Regulation of skeletal muscle growth by the IGF1-Akt/PKB pathway: insights from genetic models.''; Skelet Muscle, 2011 PubMed


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88165view08:32, 29 July 2016Mkutmonunconnected line
87350view20:50, 21 July 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'cell of skeletal muscle' added !
87349view20:50, 21 July 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'CL:0000188' removed !
87125view18:40, 18 July 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'cell of skeletal muscle' added !
87124view18:40, 18 July 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'signaling pathway' added !
87123view18:39, 18 July 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway' added !
87121view18:39, 18 July 2016AlexanderPicoNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
4EPBGeneProductENSG00000151247 (Ensembl) EIF4E
AKT1GeneProductENSG00000142208 (Ensembl)
AMPKGeneProductENSG00000111725 (Ensembl)
ActRIIBGeneProductENSG00000114739 (Ensembl)
Actin polymerization & MyofibrillogenesisPathway
EIF2B2GeneProductENSG00000119718 (Ensembl)
FoxO GeneProductfamily of transcription factors
GSK3BGeneProductENSG00000082701 (Ensembl)
IGF1GeneProductENSG00000017427 (Ensembl)
IGF1rec GeneProductENSG00000140443 (Ensembl)
IGFBP5GeneProductENSG00000115461 (Ensembl) most important of grup of IGF binding proteins that inhibit binding of IGF1 to its receptor
ILKGeneProductENSG00000166333 (Ensembl)
IRS1GeneProductENSG00000169047 (Ensembl) not sure, because also 2, 3, 4
Integrin B1GeneProductENSG00000150093 (Ensembl)
JNKProteinA0A087WVY6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LC3GeneProductENSG00000101460 (Ensembl)
MAFbxGeneProductENSG00000156804 (Ensembl) FBXO32/atrogin-1
MTORGeneProductENSG00000198793 (Ensembl)
  • effect of AKT on MTOR is indirect
  • Part of two multiprotein complexes, TORC 1 and TORC 2
MURF1 GeneProductENSG00000158022 (Ensembl) TRIM63
MyostatinGeneProductENSG00000138379 (Ensembl)
N-WASPGeneProductENSG00000106299 (Ensembl)
NEBGeneProductENSG00000183091 (Ensembl)
NFKB1GeneProductENSG00000109320 (Ensembl)
PDK1GeneProductENSG00000152256 (Ensembl)
PGC1 GeneProductENSG00000109819 (Ensembl)
PI3KGeneProductENSG00000105851 (Ensembl) phosphatidlinositol 3-kinase
PLD1GeneProductENSG00000075651 (Ensembl)
PTENGeneProductENSG00000171862 (Ensembl)
Protein degradation Pathway
Protein synthesisPathway
S6KGeneProductENSG00000108443 (Ensembl)
SMAD2GeneProductENSG00000175387 (Ensembl)
SMAD3GeneProductENSG00000166949 (Ensembl)
TNFaGeneProductENSG00000228978 (EcoGene)
TNFaGeneProductENSG00000228978 (Ensembl)
TNFrecGeneProductENSG00000067182 (Ensembl)
TWEAKGeneProductENSG00000125657 (Ensembl)
amino acids
  • Complex of mTOR when bound to Raptor
  • rapamycin sensitive
  • complex of mTOR when bound to rictor
  • rapamycin insensitive
  • maximizes activation of AKT1

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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