Gut-Liver Indole Metabolism (Homo sapiens)

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Gut bacteria Liver 1BloodGut lumenFooddietarytryptophantryptophanaseindoleCYP2E1sulfotransferaseindoxylIPAindoleindoleIPAindoxyl sulfateindoxyl sulfate


Dietary tryptophane is metabolised by the gut microbiome to indole and IPA which reaches the human blood system. Indole is further metabolized into indoxyl sulfate which also reached the blood.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Wikoff WR, Anfora AT, Liu J, Schultz PG, Lesley SA, Peters EC, Siuzdak G; ''Metabolomics analysis reveals large effects of gut microflora on mammalian blood metabolites.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC


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90137view07:47, 16 October 2016EgonwFixed the direction of the interaction.
88578view19:09, 11 August 2016Mkutmonfix unconnected lines
85226view17:03, 2 May 2016Khanspersreplaced unconnected lines with graphical lines
85162view05:13, 22 April 2016EgonwOntology Term : 'classic metabolic pathway' added !
84913view10:03, 1 April 2016EgonwModified title
84912view08:17, 1 April 2016EgonwModified description
84911view08:13, 1 April 2016EgonwClean up of the layout.
84910view08:10, 1 April 2016EgonwAdded indoxyl sulfate.
84909view08:07, 1 April 2016EgonwAdded the IPA route (no, not beer).
84908view07:47, 1 April 2016EgonwIndole to liver path added.
84907view07:37, 1 April 2016EgonwNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
CYP2E1GeneProductENSG00000130649 (Ensembl)
IPAMetaboliteCHEBI:43580 (ChEBI)
dietary tryptophanMetaboliteCHEBI:27897 (ChEBI)
indoleMetaboliteCHEBI:16881 (ChEBI)
indoxyl sulfateMetaboliteCHEBI:43355 (ChEBI)
indoxylMetaboliteCHEBI:17840 (ChEBI)
tryptophanaseGeneProduct4.1.99.1 (Enzyme Nomenclature)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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