exRNA mechanism of action and biogenesis (Homo sapiens)

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2LegendHost mRNARNA-induced silencing complexNucleusTranslational repressionor mRNA degradationdsRNAmiRNAERI1pre-miRNADGCR8XPO5DroshaDICER1DICER11pri-miRNAmRNA cleavageand degradationsiRNARISCRISCHost mRNAexo-siRNARISCexo-siRNAExogenous small interfering RNAs


The process of RNA-interference in eukaryotic cells. Long precursor microRNA (miRNA), called pri-miRNA, is cleaved by RNase III endonuclease (Drosha) into pieces of approximately 70 nucleotides each (called pre-miRNA) in the nucleus. Following transportation into the cytoplasm by exportin 5 another RNase III endonuclease (Dicer) cleaves it into mature miRNA segments. Degradation of messenger RNA (mRNA) and translational repression occurs after miRNA binds to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Cytoplasmic long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is cleaved by Dicer into small interfering RNA (siRNA), which is incorporated into RISC, resulting in the cleavage and degradation of specific target mRNA. Synthetic double-stranded siRNA is not processed by Dicer and directly incorporated by the RISC.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Thomas MF, L'Etoile ND, Ansel KM; ''Eri1: a conserved enzyme at the crossroads of multiple RNA-processing pathways.''; Trends Genet, 2014 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Giza DE, Fuentes-Mattei E, Bullock MD, Tudor S, Goblirsch MJ, Fabbri M, Lupu F, Yeung SJ, Vasilescu C, Calin GA; ''Cellular and viral microRNAs in sepsis: mechanisms of action and clinical applications.''; Cell Death Differ, 2016 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Ozpolat B, Sood AK, Lopez-Berestein G; ''Liposomal siRNA nanocarriers for cancer therapy.''; Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 2014 PubMed Europe PMC


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102224view21:03, 11 December 2018Khanspersdecreased board height
102223view21:01, 11 December 2018Khansperscondensed layout
99075view00:08, 30 October 2018KhanspersModified title
99033view21:57, 24 October 2018KhanspersModified title
99032view21:54, 24 October 2018KhanspersOntology Term : 'PW:0001161' removed !
99031view21:54, 24 October 2018KhanspersOntology Term : 'microRNA pathway' added !
99030view21:53, 24 October 2018KhanspersModified title
99029view21:52, 24 October 2018Khanspers
99028view21:51, 24 October 2018KhanspersModified description
99027view21:45, 24 October 2018KhanspersModified title
99026view21:45, 24 October 2018KhanspersAdded info from Giza et al
81654view19:46, 21 August 2015Khanspersfixed unconnected interaction
78493view10:28, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
77709view23:56, 14 October 2014KhanspersAdded ERI1
75282view23:59, 13 May 2014KhanspersOntology Term : 'RNA degradation pathway' added !
75281view23:57, 13 May 2014KhanspersModified description
75280view23:56, 13 May 2014KhanspersModified title
75279view23:56, 13 May 2014KhanspersModified title
75278view23:55, 13 May 2014KhanspersNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
DGCR8GeneProductENSG00000128191 (Ensembl)
DICER1GeneProduct23405 (Entrez Gene)
DroshaGeneProduct29102 (Entrez Gene)
ERI1GeneProductENSG00000104626 (Ensembl)
XPO5GeneProduct57510 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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