Cardiac Hypertrophic Response (Homo sapiens)

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Nucleus 1Transcription factorsG alpha-q/alpha-11G-beta-gammaStressCellular ProteinsTAK1GC-ACalmodulinPLA2PLCGPCRFGFRNIKCa2+MAPKKKCalcineurinRTKsTGFR/Activin GPCRTNFRIns(1,4,5)P3CaMKMEF2DAGPKCPKDEndo-1Ang-IICatecholaminesANPBNPcGMPPKG-ICa2+NFATNFATMAPKKKKJNKRASRAC1ROHRAF1MEK2MEK1ERK1ERK2MEK4MEK7StretchMAPKKKMAPKKKERK5MEK5StressMEK6MEK3p38IKK-betaI-kappa-BNF-kappa-BNF-kappa-BPol IICDK 7CDK 9PI3KPDK1AKT1AKT2GSK3-betaProtein SynthesismTORTNF-alphaTGF-betaNeuregulinEGFIGF-IFGFHDAC 4HDAC 7HDAC 5HDAC 9HDAC 4HDAC 7HDAC 5HDAC 9IKK-alphaIKK-gamma


Integrated schematic of the more extensively characterized intracellular signal-transduction pathways that coordinate the cardiac hypertrophic response. During development and in response to physiological stimuli or pathological insults, the heart undergoes hypertrophic enlargement, which is characterized by an increase in the size of individual cardiac myocytes.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



  1. Heineke J, Molkentin JD; ''Regulation of cardiac hypertrophy by intracellular signalling pathways.''; Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC


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97631view10:45, 31 May 2018AMTanOntology Term : 'hypertrophic cardiomyopathy' added !
97630view10:45, 31 May 2018AMTanOntology Term : 'cardiac muscle cell' added !
96685view23:58, 26 March 2018AlexanderPicopaths
96684view23:56, 26 March 2018AlexanderPicoupdated interaction paths
96683view23:54, 26 March 2018AlexanderPicoupdated font size and interaction paths
85087view23:02, 12 April 2016EgonwQuick edit to datanode annotation or property
78544view10:30, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
76316view19:11, 1 July 2014CgroveChanged typo of "PCL" for "Phospholipase C" to "PLC"
74825view09:37, 30 April 2014MkutmonModified description
74824view09:35, 30 April 2014MkutmonOntology Term : 'hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathway' added !
74823view09:34, 30 April 2014MkutmonNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AKT1GeneProduct207 (Entrez Gene)
AKT2GeneProduct208 (Entrez Gene)
ANPProtein4878 (Entrez Gene)
Ang-IIMetaboliteHMDB01035 (HMDB)
CDK 7GeneProduct1022 (Entrez Gene)
CDK 9GeneProduct1025 (Entrez Gene)
Ca2+MetaboliteHMDB00464 (HMDB)
CaMKGeneProduct817 (Entrez Gene)
CalcineurinGeneProduct5530 (Entrez Gene)
CalmodulinGeneProduct801 (Entrez Gene)
CatecholaminesMetaboliteCHEBI:33567 (ChEBI)
DAGMetaboliteHMDB07009 (HMDB)
EGFProtein1950 (Entrez Gene)
ERK1GeneProduct5595 (Entrez Gene)
ERK2GeneProduct5594 (Entrez Gene)
ERK5GeneProduct5598 (Entrez Gene)
FGFProtein2247 (Entrez Gene)
FGFRProtein2263 (Entrez Gene)
GC-AGeneProduct2978 (Entrez Gene)
GSK3-betaGeneProduct2932 (Entrez Gene)
HDAC 4GeneProduct9759 (Entrez Gene)
HDAC 5GeneProduct10014 (Entrez Gene)
HDAC 7GeneProduct51564 (Entrez Gene)
HDAC 9GeneProduct9734 (Entrez Gene)
I-kappa-BGeneProduct9641 (Entrez Gene)
IGF-IProtein3479 (Entrez Gene)
IKK-alphaGeneProduct1147 (Entrez Gene)
IKK-betaGeneProduct3551 (Entrez Gene)
IKK-gammaGeneProduct8517 (Entrez Gene)
Ins(1,4,5)P3MetaboliteHMDB01498 (HMDB)
JNKGeneProduct5599 (Entrez Gene)
MAPKKKGeneProduct4214 (Entrez Gene)
MAPKKKKGeneProduct11184 (Entrez Gene)
MEF2GeneProduct4205 (Entrez Gene)
MEK1GeneProduct5604 (Entrez Gene)
MEK2GeneProduct5605 (Entrez Gene)
MEK3GeneProduct5606 (Entrez Gene)
MEK4GeneProduct6416 (Entrez Gene)
MEK5GeneProduct5607 (Entrez Gene)
MEK6GeneProduct5608 (Entrez Gene)
MEK7GeneProduct5609 (Entrez Gene)
NF-kappa-BGeneProduct4790 (Entrez Gene)
NFATGeneProduct4773 (Entrez Gene)
NIKGeneProduct9020 (Entrez Gene)
NeuregulinProtein3084 (Entrez Gene)
PDK1GeneProduct5170 (Entrez Gene)
PKCGeneProduct5578 (Entrez Gene)
PKDGeneProduct5587 (Entrez Gene)
PKG-IGeneProduct5592 (Entrez Gene)
PLA2GeneProduct5320 (Entrez Gene)
Pol IIGeneProduct
RAC1GeneProduct5879 (Entrez Gene)
RAF1GeneProduct5894 (Entrez Gene)
TAK1GeneProduct6885 (Entrez Gene)
TGF-betaProtein7040 (Entrez Gene)
TGFR/Activin Protein7046 (Entrez Gene)
TNF-alphaProtein7124 (Entrez Gene)
TNFRProtein7132 (Entrez Gene)
cGMPMetaboliteHMDB01314 (HMDB)
mTORGeneProduct2475 (Entrez Gene)
p38GeneProduct1432 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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