Starch Metabolism (Arabidopsis thaliana)

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Chloroplastglucose 1-phosphatePHS1starchPGI1ADP-glucosePGMPFBPglucose 6-phosphatePifructose 1,6-bisphosphatefructose 6-phosphatePiH2OATPPPiADPSucrose MetabolismGlycolysisCalvin-Benson CycleSS1SS2SS3APL2APL3ADG2APS1


This pathways describes the synthesis and degradation reactions of starch in the chloroplast.The metabolic link with the Calvin-Benson Cycle, Sucrose Metabolism and Glycolysis are indicated.

Protein identifiers for A. thaliana are from UNIPROT.

The pathway is inspired from information drawn for Plant Physiology (Taiz and Zeiger) Third Edition and KEGG Pathways.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



  1. Abhijit Karve, Bradley L. Rauh, Xiaoxia Xia, Muthugapatti Kandasamy, Richard B. Meagher, Jen Sheen, Brandon d. Moore; ''Expression and evolutionary features of the hexokinase gene family in Arabidopsis''; Planta, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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105901view11:36, 16 August 2019MkutmonHMDB identifier normalization
85067view11:56, 10 April 2016EgonwRemoved duplicate info from PubMedCentral ID.
83905view22:07, 28 December 2015SbohlerPrimary ID of proteins changed to Ensembl
83904view18:37, 28 December 2015SbohlerMinor cosmetic changes
83903view18:34, 28 December 2015Sbohlereaction identifier corrections regarding cellular compartment.
83902view17:48, 28 December 2015SbohlerReaction annotations modified, pathway corrected.
83901view17:01, 28 December 2015SbohlerReactions annotated with KEGG Reaction IDs
78385view10:22, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
76153view13:40, 12 June 2014EgonwPubMed Central IDs don't work with the "PubMed" database; replaced the ID with the matching PubMed ID.
76142view14:50, 11 June 2014SbohlerAll protein nodes are now annotated with Uniprot-TrEMBL IDs. Some nodes were split into isoforms and/or subunits.
75327view13:41, 19 May 2014SbohlerAdded cell border and label for Chloroplast.
73923view10:21, 4 March 2014AnweshaOntology Term : 'starch biosynthetic pathway' added !
73922view10:16, 4 March 2014AnweshaModified description
73918view09:55, 4 March 2014SbohlerModified description
73914view09:27, 4 March 2014AnweshaAdded metabolite idenitifiers
73913view09:24, 4 March 2014AnweshaAdded metabolite identifiers
73912view09:23, 4 March 2014AnweshaPeriodical save, work in progress
73911view09:19, 4 March 2014AnweshaAdded pathway identifiers
73606view13:22, 4 February 2014AnweshaNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADG2ProteinAT5G19220 (Ensembl)
ADP-glucoseMetaboliteHMDB0006557 (HMDB)
ADPMetaboliteC00008 (KEGG Compound)
APL2ProteinAT1G27680 (Ensembl)
APL3ProteinAT4G39210 (Ensembl)
APS1ProteinAT5G48300 (Ensembl)
ATPMetaboliteHMDB0000538 (HMDB)
Calvin-Benson CyclePathwayWP2619 (WikiPathways)
FBPProteinAT3G54050 (Ensembl)
GlycolysisPathwayWP2621 (WikiPathways)
H2OMetaboliteHMDB0002111 (HMDB)
PGI1ProteinAT4G24620 (Ensembl)
PGMPProteinAT5G51820 (Ensembl)
PHS1ProteinAT3G29320 (Ensembl)
PPiMetaboliteCHEBI:35782 (ChEBI)
PiMetaboliteCHEBI:18367 (ChEBI)
SS1ProteinAT5G24300 (Ensembl)
SS2ProteinAT3G01180 (Ensembl)
SS3ProteinAT1G11720 (Ensembl)
Sucrose Metabolism PathwayWP2623 (WikiPathways)
fructose 1,6-bisphosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001058 (HMDB)
fructose 6-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0000124 (HMDB)
glucose 1-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001586 (HMDB)
glucose 6-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001401 (HMDB)
starchMetaboliteC00369 (KEGG Compound)

Annotated Interactions

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SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADP-glucosestarchmim-conversionR02421 (KEGG Reaction)
ADPArrowR02421 (KEGG Reaction)
ATPR00948 (KEGG Reaction)
H2OR00762_p (KEGG Reaction)
PPimim-conversionR00948 (KEGG Reaction)
PiArrowR00762_p (KEGG Reaction)
PiR02111 (KEGG Reaction)
fructose 1,6-bisphosphatefructose 6-phosphatemim-conversionR00762_p (WikiPathways)
fructose 6-phosphateglucose 6-phosphatemim-conversionR02740_p (WikiPathways)
glucose 1-phosphateADP-glucosemim-conversionR00948 (KEGG Reaction)
glucose 1-phosphateglucose 6-phosphatemim-conversionR00959_p (WikiPathways)
glucose 1-phosphatestarchR02111 (KEGG Reaction)
mim-conversionR02111 (KEGG Reaction)
starchR02421 (KEGG Reaction)
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