Cori Cycle (Homo sapiens)

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BrainSedoheptuloseLactateGPTG3PSLC2A4IsomeraseGPIribuloseGlycogenolysis3-PhosphoglycerateSLC2A2AlanineG6PSLC2A1D-Fructose-6-phosphateGlycogenesisG3PPGAM1Fructose 6PNADH6P gluconatePyruvateG6PNAD+GluconeogenesisInsulinPyruvateTPI1DHAPPyruvate KinaseGluconolactonaseKreb's CycleTransketolasePhosphoenol PyruvateGlycolosis1,3-biphosphoglycerate6P Gluconate DHRiboseFructose 1,6-bisphosphateGlucose6-Phosphogluconolactone 2-phosphoglycerate(3-)GlycogenXyluloseLDHAG3PHexokinaseH2OXyluloseEpimeraseGAPDHSLC2A4PFKPALDOAPGK1EnolaseHexokinaseG6PPyruvateGPTLDHASLC2A1G6PerythrosesFructose 6PG6PDTransketolaseTALDO1ATPADPATPADPGlycogenolysisGlycogenGlycogenesisG6PAdiposeMuscleRBCLiverPGK2


Description

The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is metabolized back to lactate.

Muscular activity requires ATP, which is provided by the breakdown of glycogen in the skeletal muscles. The breakdown of glycogen, a process known as glycogenolysis, releases glucose in the form of glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P). The G-1-P is converted to G-6-P by the enzyme phosphoglucomutase. G-6-P is readily fed into glycolysis, (or can go into the pentose phosphate pathway if G-6-P concentration is high) a process that provides ATP to the muscle cells as an energy source. During muscular activity, the store of ATP needs to be constantly replenished. When the supply of oxygen is sufficient, this energy comes from feeding pyruvate, one product of glycolysis, into the Krebs cycle. When oxygen supply is insufficient, typically during intense muscular activity, energy must be released through anaerobic metabolism. Lactic acid fermentation converts pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase. Most importantly, fermentation regenerates NAD+, maintaining the NAD+ concentration so that additional glycolysis reactions can occur. The fermentation step oxidizes the NADH produced by glycolysis back to NAD+, transferring two electrons from NADH to reduce pyruvate into lactate. Instead of accumulating inside the muscle cells, lactate produced by anaerobic fermentation is taken up by the liver. This initiates the other half of the Cori cycle. In the liver, gluconeogenesis occurs. From an intuitive perspective, gluconeogenesis reverses both glycolysis and fermentation by converting lactate first into pyruvate, and finally back to glucose. The glucose is then supplied to the muscles through the bloodstream; it is ready to be fed into further glycolysis reactions. If muscle activity has stopped, the glucose is used to replenish the supplies of glycogen through glycogenesis. Overall, the glycolysis part of the cycle produces 2 ATP molecules at a cost of 6 ATP molecules consumed in the gluconeogenesis part. Each iteration of the cycle must be maintained by a net consumption of 4 ATP molecules. As a result, the cycle cannot be sustained indefinitely. The intensive consumption of ATP molecules indicates that the Cori cycle shifts the metabolic burden from the muscles to the liver.

Source: Wikipedia

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History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
96397view10:02, 12 March 2018EgonwReplaced secondary ChEBI identifiers with primary identifiers.
96280view08:21, 5 March 2018EgonwNot a conversion.
96081view18:57, 15 February 2018KhanspersModified description
94218view22:10, 25 August 2017DeSlConnected lines
94217view22:08, 25 August 2017DeSlannotated all metabolites which missed ID.
79691view20:14, 4 April 2015AlexanderPicoremoved new line from datanode label
79584view08:38, 26 March 2015Zariadded ID for Insulin
74091view12:07, 29 March 2014EgonwAdded a bunch of missing metabolite identifiers.
72147view10:16, 25 October 2013EgonwInsulin is not a metabolite.
71247view20:18, 16 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
62354view23:23, 27 April 2013AlexanderPicoCompleted annotation update
62353view23:16, 27 April 2013AlexanderPicoStill updating...
62352view23:10, 27 April 2013AlexanderPicoStill updating...
62351view23:04, 27 April 2013AlexanderPicoUpdating datanode annotations and labels
44995view14:40, 6 October 2011MartijnVanIerselOntology Term : 'energy metabolic pathway' added !
44992view14:37, 6 October 2011Mkutmonconnected lines
42206view21:11, 7 March 2011KhanspersModified categories
41069view23:19, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
40224view00:49, 22 February 2011AlexanderPicoset compartment properties
40223view00:45, 22 February 2011AlexanderPicoadded anchor, connected edge, connected Hexokinase datanode
40218view03:01, 21 February 2011ErsaxtonAdded Identifiers
40217view02:50, 21 February 2011ErsaxtonFix Lactonase
40058view21:41, 2 February 2011Ersaxton
40057view21:38, 2 February 2011ErsaxtonPeriodical save, work in progress
40056view21:24, 2 February 2011ErsaxtonCori and PPS
40055view21:04, 2 February 2011ErsaxtonPeriodical save, work in progress
40054view20:54, 2 February 2011ErsaxtonPeriodical save, work in progress
40053view20:23, 2 February 2011ErsaxtonNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
1,3-biphosphoglycerateMetabolite89363 (ChEBI)
2-phosphoglycerate(3-)MetaboliteQ27160201 (Wikidata)
3-PhosphoglycerateMetaboliteCHEBI:17050 (ChEBI)
6-Phosphogluconolactone Metabolite388559 (Chemspider) 6-Phosphogluconolactone is ment here, iso 6P gloconoic acid lactone
6P Gluconate DHProteinENSG00000160211 (Ensembl)
6P gluconateMetaboliteCHEBI:48928 (ChEBI) 6-Phospho-D-gluconate
ADPMetaboliteCHEBI:16761 (ChEBI)
ALDOAProteinALDOA (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ATPMetaboliteCHEBI:30616 (ChEBI)
AlanineMetaboliteCHEBI:16449 (ChEBI)
D-Fructose-6-phosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:15946 (ChEBI)
DHAPMetabolite16108 (ChEBI) dihydroxyacetone phosphate
EnolaseGeneProduct4.2.1.11 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
EpimeraseProtein5.1.3.22 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphateMetaboliteHMDB01058 (HMDB)
Fructose 6PMetaboliteCHEBI:15946 (ChEBI)
Fructose 6PMetaboliteHMDB00124 (HMDB)
G3PMetabolite17138 (ChEBI)
G3PMetaboliteHMDB01112 (HMDB)
G6PDGeneProductENSG00000160211 (Ensembl)
G6PMetaboliteHMDB01401 (HMDB)
GAPDHGeneProductENSG00000111640 (Ensembl)
GPIGeneProductENSG00000105220 (Ensembl)
GPTGeneProductENSG00000167701 (Ensembl)
GluconeogenesisPathway
GluconolactonaseGeneProduct3.1.1.17 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
GlucoseMetaboliteHMDB00122 (HMDB)
Glycogen MetaboliteCHEBI:28087 (ChEBI)
GlycogenMetaboliteCHEBI:28087 (ChEBI)
GlycogenesisPathway
GlycogenolysisPathway
GlycolosisPathway
H2OMetaboliteCHEBI:15377 (ChEBI)
HexokinaseGeneProduct3098 (Entrez Gene)
InsulinGeneProduct3630 (Entrez Gene)
IsomeraseGeneProduct5.3.1.6 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
Kreb's CyclePathwayWP78 (WikiPathways)
LDHAGeneProductENSG00000134333 (Ensembl)
LactateMetaboliteCHEBI:24996 (ChEBI)
NAD+MetaboliteCHEBI:15846 (ChEBI)
NADHMetaboliteCHEBI:16908 (ChEBI)
PFKPGeneProductENSG00000067057 (Ensembl)
PGAM1GeneProductENSG00000171314 (Ensembl)
PGK1GeneProductENSG00000102144 (Ensembl)
PGK2GeneProductENSG00000170950 (Ensembl)
Phosphoenol PyruvateMetabolite58702 (ChEBI)
Pyruvate KinaseGeneProduct2.7.1.40 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
PyruvateMetaboliteCHEBI:15361 (ChEBI)
RiboseMetaboliteCHEBI:33942 (ChEBI)
SLC2A1GeneProductENSG00000117394 (Ensembl)
SLC2A2GeneProductENSG00000163581 (Ensembl)
SLC2A4GeneProductENSG00000181856 (Ensembl)
SedoheptuloseMetaboliteCHEBI:16802 (ChEBI)
TALDO1GeneProductENSG00000177156 (Ensembl)
TPI1GeneProductENSG00000111669 (Ensembl)
TransketolaseProtein2.2.1.1 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
XyluloseMetaboliteCHEBI:27353 (ChEBI)
erythrosesMetaboliteCHEBI:23957 (ChEBI)
ribuloseMetaboliteCHEBI:28721 (ChEBI)

Annotated Interactions

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