Polyol pathway (Mus musculus)

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1-3glycolysisglycolysisAldobD-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphateDihydroxyacetone phosphateKhkD-FructoseGlyceraldehydeSorbitolD-GlucoseAkr1b3SordFructose 1-phosphate


When glucose is unused, it is metabolized via the polyol pathway. This pathway consists of two main enzymatic steps. First, glucose is reduced to sorbitol by aldose reductase. In this step, NADPH is oxidized to NADP+. The next step is the oxidation of sorbitol to D-fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase.

Fructose can then be phosphorylated by fructokinase and subsequently be metabolized via dihydroxyacetone phosphate or glyceraldehyde to D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which can be used as a substrate in the process of glycolysis.

The sorbitol pathway plays a role in diabetic renal complications because aldose reductase metabolizes the excess of glucose to toxic metabolites that induce hyperfiltration and glomerular dysfunction.


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP690(r29659) with a 100% conversion rate.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Brownlee M; ''Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications.''; Nature, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Dunlop M; ''Aldose reductase and the role of the polyol pathway in diabetic nephropathy.''; Kidney Int Suppl, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Tolan DR; ''Molecular basis of hereditary fructose intolerance: mutations and polymorphisms in the human aldolase B gene.''; Hum Mutat, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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106846view13:32, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
69077view18:09, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
67600view11:31, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'glucose utilization pathway' added !
59024view20:40, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
41264view00:21, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
32726view22:46, 3 September 2009MaintBotModified categories
30888view00:19, 30 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
Akr1b3GeneProduct11677 (Entrez Gene)
AldobGeneProductENSMUSG00000028307 (Ensembl)
D-FructoseMetaboliteHMDB0000660 (HMDB)
D-GlucoseMetaboliteHMDB0000122 (HMDB)
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001112 (HMDB)
Dihydroxyacetone phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001473 (HMDB)
Fructose 1-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001076 (HMDB)
GlyceraldehydeMetaboliteHMDB0001051 (HMDB)
KhkGeneProductENSMUSG00000029162 (Ensembl)
SorbitolMetaboliteHMDB0000247 (HMDB)
SordGeneProductENSMUSG00000027227 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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