Retinol metabolism (Mus musculus)

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21, 22beta-carotenePPAR pathways?all-trans-4-oxo dehydro RA9-cis ROLREbeta-caroteneRE + dietary lipidsRE + dietary lipidsBloodRA-binding proteinsRE + dietary lipids13,14 dehydro RA13,14 dehydro RAL11-cis RALall-trans RAEnterocyteLiver/other organs9-cis RAL?Nuclear receptorsCytochrome P450 family11-cis ROLROL=retinol; RAL=retinaldehyde, RA = retinoic acid, RE = retinyl ester, RPE = retinal pigment epithelium 9-cis RAREall-trans ROLall-trans RAL11-cis binding protein?NucleusRPE-specificROL-binding proteins?ROLRALbeta-carotene?13,14 dehydro ROLall-trans-4-oxo RAROLchylomicronbeta-10'-apocarotenal?beta-caroteneBcmo1Bcdo2violaxanthinRdh5Vitamin D3Aldh1a2Crabp1canthaxanthinRdh12Adh1Bcmo1Rpe65LplAldh1a1Abcg5RxraCyp26a1Aldh1a2Sult1a1alpha-caroteneRarglycopeneAbcg8luteinAldh1a3Rbp4Rbp2LratastaxanthinCyp2e1Rdh8Scarb1beta-cryptoxanthinLratRxrgSult2b1RaraBcmo1Cyp26b1zeaxanthinARATRdh12RarbRetsatScarb1Rbp1Rdh5Npc1l1Aldh1a1Rlbp1Rdh10Rbp7RxrbAdh4Dhrs3Cd36Crabp2Aldh1a3MAPKcryptoxanthin6, 7, 10, 121, 6, 15202, 4, 11, 13, 16...3, 5, 8, 9, 14...


This pathway is about carotenoid metabolism. It is mainly created by the NuGO focusteam on Carotenoid metabolism. Finally it was subject to a text mining workflow which added some additional entities.


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP716(r30274) with a 86% conversion rate.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



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  1. Khachik F, Beecher GR, Goli MB, Lusby WR, Smith JC Jr; ''Separation and identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in the extracts of human plasma.''; Anal Chem, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
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  4. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Huet F, Semama D, Maingueneau C, Charavel A, Nivelon JL; ''Vitamin A deficiency and nocturnal vision in teenagers with cystic fibrosis.''; Eur J Pediatr, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Handelman GJ, Dratz EA, Reay CC, van Kuijk JG; ''Carotenoids in the human macula and whole retina.''; Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. VandenLangenberg GM, Brady WE, Nebeling LC, Block G, Forman M, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Mares-Perlman JA; ''Influence of using different sources of carotenoid data in epidemiologic studies.''; J Am Diet Assoc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Rojas-Hidalgo E; ''Seasonal and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Sies H, Stahl W, Sundquist AR; ''Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids.''; Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. Hidiroglou M, Williams CJ; ''Interrelationships among liposoluble vitamins in ruminants.''; Am J Vet Res, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  12. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  13. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  14. Czeczuga-Semeniuk E, Wolczynski S, Markiewicz W; ''Preliminary identification of carotenoids in malignant and benign neoplasms of the breast and surrounding fatty tissue.''; Neoplasma, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  15. Micozzi MS, Brown ED, Edwards BK, Bieri JG, Taylor PR, Khachik F, Beecher GR, Smith JC Jr; ''Plasma carotenoid response to chronic intake of selected foods and beta-carotene supplements in men.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  16. Amir H, Karas M, Giat J, Danilenko M, Levy R, Yermiahu T, Levy J, Sharoni Y; ''Lycopene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 cooperate in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of differentiation in HL-60 leukemic cells.''; Nutr Cancer, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  17. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  18. Johansson S, Melhus H; ''Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man.''; J Bone Miner Res, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  19. Torma H, Rollman O, Binderup L, Michaelsson G; ''Vitamin D analogs affect the uptake and metabolism of retinol by human epidermal keratinocytes in culture.''; J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  20. Bendich A, Olson JA; ''Biological actions of carotenoids.''; FASEB J, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  21. Balmer JE, Blomhoff R; ''Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid.''; J Lipid Res, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  22. Ruhl CE, Everhart JE; ''Relation of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity with iron and antioxidant levels in the United States.''; Gastroenterology, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  23. Boosalis MG, Snowdon DA, Tully CL, Gross MD; ''Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.''; Nutrition, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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106842view13:32, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
89974view18:42, 6 October 2016Mkutmonfix unconnected lines
74433view06:19, 20 April 2014EgonwFixed a PubMed ID.
71742view20:18, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
71327view17:17, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
69152view18:18, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
67627view11:35, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'retinol metabolic pathway' added !
51364view07:04, 7 September 2012Thomasreverted coloration by Dingju11 (no explanation provided)
48058view17:33, 1 May 2012Strandcorrected database name - hmdbid to HMDB
47765view05:17, 6 April 2012Khanspersupdated xref
45918view01:48, 28 November 2011Dingju11differential_genes
45897view21:45, 22 November 2011Dingju11Retinol_metabolism_colored_gene_expression_level
43794view22:46, 27 July 2011Samuel SklarSpecify description
43793view22:40, 27 July 2011Samuel SklarPeriodical save, work in progress
43792view22:20, 27 July 2011Samuel SklarPeriodical save, work in progress
43791view22:07, 27 July 2011Samuel SklarPeriodical save, work in progress
41340view00:26, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
38718view19:33, 23 September 2010AlexanderPico
33049view22:16, 7 October 2009MaintBotadded xrefs
32753view23:33, 3 September 2009MaintBotModified categories
30872view00:14, 30 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
Abcg5GeneProduct27409 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg8GeneProduct67470 (Entrez Gene)
Adh1GeneProduct11522 (Entrez Gene)
Adh4GeneProduct26876 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a1GeneProduct11668 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a2GeneProduct19378 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a3GeneProduct56847 (Entrez Gene)
Bcdo2GeneProductQ99NF1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Bcmo1GeneProduct63857 (Entrez Gene)
Cd36GeneProduct12491 (Entrez Gene)
Crabp1GeneProduct12903 (Entrez Gene)
Crabp2GeneProduct12904 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26a1GeneProduct13082 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26b1GeneProduct232174 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp2e1GeneProduct13106 (Entrez Gene)
Dhrs3GeneProduct20148 (Entrez Gene)
LplGeneProduct16956 (Entrez Gene)
LratGeneProduct79235 (Entrez Gene)
Npc1l1GeneProduct237636 (Entrez Gene)
RaraGeneProduct19401 (Entrez Gene)
RarbGeneProduct218772 (Entrez Gene)
RargGeneProduct19411 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp1GeneProduct19659 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp2GeneProduct19660 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp4GeneProduct19662 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp7GeneProduct63954 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh10GeneProduct98711 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh12GeneProduct77974 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh5GeneProduct19682 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh8GeneProduct235033 (Entrez Gene)
RetsatGeneProduct67442 (Entrez Gene)
Rlbp1GeneProduct19771 (Entrez Gene)
Rpe65GeneProduct19892 (Entrez Gene)
RxraGeneProduct20181 (Entrez Gene)
RxrbGeneProduct20182 (Entrez Gene)
RxrgGeneProduct20183 (Entrez Gene)
Scarb1GeneProduct20778 (Entrez Gene)
Sult1a1GeneProduct20887 (Entrez Gene)
Sult2b1GeneProduct54200 (Entrez Gene)
Vitamin D3MetaboliteHMDB0000876 (HMDB)
alpha-caroteneMetaboliteHMDB0003993 (HMDB)
astaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002204 (HMDB)
beta-cryptoxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002268 (HMDB)
canthaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0003154 (HMDB)
cryptoxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002268 (HMDB)
luteinMetaboliteHMDB0003233 (HMDB)
lycopeneMetaboliteHMDB0003000 (HMDB)
violaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0003101 (HMDB)
zeaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002789 (HMDB)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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