Polyol pathway (Anopheles gambiae)

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1-3glycolysisglycolysisSorbitolAgaP_AGAP011050SORDD-FructoseFructokinaseFructose 1-phosphateDihydroxyacetone phosphateD-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphateGlyceraldehydeD-GlucoseALDOB


When glucose is unused, it is metabolized via the polyol pathway. This pathway consists of two main enzymatic steps. First, glucose is reduced to sorbitol by aldose reductase. In this step, NADPH is oxidized to NADP+. The next step is the oxidation of sorbitol to D-fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase.

Fructose can then be phosphorylated by fructokinase and subsequently be metabolized via dihydroxyacetone phosphate or glyceraldehyde to D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which can be used as a substrate in the process of glycolysis.

The sorbitol pathway plays a role in diabetic renal complications because aldose reductase metabolizes the excess of glucose to toxic metabolites that induce hyperfiltration and glomerular dysfunction.


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP690(r29659) with a 75% conversion rate.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Brownlee M; ''Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications.''; Nature, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Tolan DR; ''Molecular basis of hereditary fructose intolerance: mutations and polymorphisms in the human aldolase B gene.''; Hum Mutat, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Dunlop M; ''Aldose reductase and the role of the polyol pathway in diabetic nephropathy.''; Kidney Int Suppl, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC


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105894view11:30, 16 August 2019MkutmonHMDB identifier normalization
88337view15:57, 1 August 2016FehrhartOntology Term : 'polyol pathway' added !
79422view23:36, 21 March 2015Khanspersupdate schema
79421view23:36, 21 March 2015KhanspersReverted to version '22:59, 20 February 2013' by Khanspers
68442view19:16, 5 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
58807view22:59, 20 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
40473view18:47, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
32729view22:52, 3 September 2009MaintBotwork in progress
32728view22:51, 3 September 2009MaintBotModified categories
30805view23:48, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ALDOBGeneProductAGAP002564 (Ensembl)
AgaP_AGAP011050GeneProduct1269450 (Entrez Gene)
D-FructoseMetaboliteHMDB00660 (HMDB)
D-GlucoseMetaboliteHMDB00122 (HMDB)
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB01112 (HMDB)
Dihydroxyacetone phosphateMetaboliteHMDB01473 (HMDB)
FructokinaseGeneProductAGAP002483 (Ensembl)
Fructose 1-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB01076 (HMDB)
GlyceraldehydeMetaboliteHMDB01051 (HMDB)
SorbitolMetaboliteHMDB00247 (HMDB)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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