Polyol Pathway (Bos taurus)

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1-3Fructose 1-phosphateGlyceraldehydeD-GlucoseSorbitolSORDALR2KHKD-FructoseDihydroxyacetone phosphateGlycolysisD-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphateALDOBGlycolysis


When glucose is unused, it is metabolized via the polyol pathway. This pathway consists of two main enzymatic steps. First, glucose is reduced to sorbitol by aldose reductase. In this step, NADPH is oxidized to NADP+. The next step is the oxidation of sorbitol to D-fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase.

Fructose can then be phosphorylated by fructokinase and subsequently be metabolized via dihydroxyacetone phosphate or glyceraldehyde to D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which can be used as a substrate in the process of glycolysis.

The sorbitol pathway plays a role in diabetic renal complications because aldose reductase metabolizes the excess of glucose to toxic metabolites that induce hyperfiltration and glomerular dysfunction.


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP690(72132) with a 100.0% conversion rate.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Brownlee M; ''Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications.''; Nature, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Dunlop M; ''Aldose reductase and the role of the polyol pathway in diabetic nephropathy.''; Kidney Int Suppl, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Tolan DR; ''Molecular basis of hereditary fructose intolerance: mutations and polymorphisms in the human aldolase B gene.''; Hum Mutat, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC


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106021view11:54, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
86859view07:28, 14 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'glucose oxidation pathway' added !
86858view07:27, 14 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'diabetes mellitus' added !
86857view07:23, 14 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'kidney disease pathway' added !
86856view07:23, 14 July 2016Mkutmonontology tag fixed
80852view15:28, 30 June 2015Mkutmonhomology conversion
63363view22:23, 9 May 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
58818view23:18, 20 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
40535view19:30, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
33776view00:07, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
32736view23:00, 3 September 2009MaintBotModified categories
30623view22:23, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ALDOBGeneProductENSBTAG00000015358 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000136872
ALR2GeneProductENSBTAG00000020794 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:231
D-FructoseMetaboliteHMDB0000660 (HMDB)
D-GlucoseMetaboliteHMDB0000122 (HMDB)
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001112 (HMDB)
Dihydroxyacetone phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001473 (HMDB)
Fructose 1-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001076 (HMDB)
GlyceraldehydeMetaboliteHMDB0001051 (HMDB)
GlycolysisPathwayWP534 (WikiPathways)
KHKGeneProductENSBTAG00000011325 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000138030
SORDGeneProductENSBTAG00000025496 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = En:ENSG00000140263
SorbitolMetaboliteHMDB0000247 (HMDB)

Annotated Interactions

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