TCA Cycle (aka Krebs or citric acid cycle) (Homo sapiens)

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CytosolMitochondrionPDK4IDH3AFumarate HydrataseMalatePDK1GluconeogenesisIDH3GSUCLG1DLDIDH2PDHA1MDH2Acetyl-CoAPDHA2GlycolysisDLDSDHDPDHXIsocitrateSuccinyl-CoAFumarateSDHASDHBSDHCFatty Acid SynthesisPDK3PyruvateCitrate SynthasePPM2CDLSTElectron Transport Chainα-KetoglutarateMalateDegradation of Fatty AcidsContaining an Even Number of CarbonsSuccinatePDK2ACO2IDH3BDLATSUCLA2PDHBDegradation of Fatty AcidsContaining an Odd Number of CarbonsMDH1CitrateOxaloacetateSUCLG2Pyruvate CarboxylaseOxaloacetatePDP2OGDH


Description

The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) or the Krebs cycle, (or rarely, the Szent-Gyorgyi-Krebs cycle) is a series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration. In eukaryotes, the citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion. The components and reactions of the citric acid cycle were established by seminal work from both Albert Szent-Gyorgyi and Hans Krebs. Source: Wikipedia (wikipedia:citric_acid_cycle)

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Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

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  1. Lawson AM, Chalmers RA, Watts RW; ''Urinary organic acids in man. I. Normal patterns.''; Clin Chem, 1976 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Lambeth DO, Tews KN, Adkins S, Frohlich D, Milavetz BI; ''Expression of two succinyl-CoA synthetases with different nucleotide specificities in mammalian tissues.''; J Biol Chem, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Johnson JD, Muhonen WW, Lambeth DO; ''Characterization of the ATP- and GTP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetases in pigeon. The enzymes incorporate the same alpha-subunit.''; J Biol Chem, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Greksák M, Lopes-Cardozo M, van den Bergh SG; ''Citrate synthesis in intact rat-liver mitochondria is irreversible.''; Eur J Biochem, 1982 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Krebs, H. A., Johnson, W. A.; ''The Role of Citric Acid in Intermediate Metabolism in Animal Tissues.''; Enzymologia, 1937
  6. Gabriel JL, Zervos PR, Plaut GW; ''Activity of purified NAD-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase at modulator and substrate concentrations approximating conditions in mitochondria.''; Metabolism, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Hoek JB, Rydström J; ''Physiological roles of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase.''; Biochem J, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Des Rosiers C, Fernandez CA, David F, Brunengraber H; ''Reversibility of the mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction in the perfused rat liver. Evidence from isotopomer analysis of citric acid cycle intermediates.''; J Biol Chem, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Krebs HA, Holzach O; ''The conversion of citrate into cis-aconitate and isocitrate in the presence of aconitase.''; Biochem J, 1952 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Sazanov LA, Jackson JB; ''Proton-translocating transhydrogenase and NAD- and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases operate in a substrate cycle which contributes to fine regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in mitochondria.''; FEBS Lett, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. Liu TC, Kim H, Arizmendi C, Kitano A, Patel MS; ''Identification of two missense mutations in a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-deficient patient.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  12. Des Rosiers C, Di Donato L, Comte B, Laplante A, Marcoux C, David F, Fernandez CA, Brunengraber H; ''Isotopomer analysis of citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis in rat liver. Reversibility of isocitrate dehydrogenase and involvement of ATP-citrate lyase in gluconeogenesis.''; J Biol Chem, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  13. Fernandez CA, Des Rosiers C; ''Modeling of liver citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis based on 13C mass isotopomer distribution analysis of intermediates.''; J Biol Chem, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  14. Comte B, Vincent G, Bouchard B, Benderdour M, Des Rosiers C; ''Reverse flux through cardiac NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase under normoxia and ischemia.''; Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  15. Sheu KF, Blass JP; ''The alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex.''; Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia

History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
106832view13:31, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
105832view23:08, 15 August 2019KhanspersModified description
98278view15:47, 15 August 2018DeSlRemoved licence number
98277view15:46, 15 August 2018DeSlChanged layout slightly, changed title for findability.
98276view15:43, 15 August 2018DeSlAdded isoform of A-SCS protein, connected with right side-metabolites.
90661view19:27, 4 December 2016AlexanderPicoAdded urea cycle pathway node
90504view14:00, 19 November 2016EgonwOntology Term : 'classic metabolic pathway' added !
70014view23:48, 11 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
67690view11:49, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'citrate cycle pathway' added !
59783view22:02, 7 March 2013Khanspersminor change
59770view17:53, 7 March 2013Khanspersminor layout change
59769view17:51, 7 March 2013Khanspersadded bounding rectangle to pathway nodes
59710view19:48, 6 March 2013AlexanderPicoSimplified SUCLG reaction; additional minor layout and label fixes
59709view19:22, 6 March 2013AlexanderPicoPeriodical save, work in progress
59708view19:17, 6 March 2013AlexanderPicoRemoved incomplete H+ accounting
59707view19:13, 6 March 2013AlexanderPicoFixing layout, labels, node size, arrows
47741view15:54, 5 April 2012MdstobbeMinor layout change.
47740view15:50, 5 April 2012MdstobbeChanged to Entrez Gene IDs.
47731view16:50, 4 April 2012MdstobbeAdded 3 more literature references.
47724view11:56, 4 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47723view11:46, 4 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47722view11:36, 4 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47721view11:26, 4 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47720view11:16, 4 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47700view09:15, 3 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47699view09:03, 3 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47698view08:53, 3 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47697view08:41, 3 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47696view08:20, 3 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47695view08:10, 3 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47694view08:00, 3 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47681view21:31, 2 April 2012Mdstobbesmall change to lit. ref.
47680view21:26, 2 April 2012MdstobbeAdded reference and switched the two IDH reactions from place.
47679view21:06, 2 April 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47654view16:37, 2 April 2012SmhoutenRefinements
47580view14:58, 29 March 2012MdstobbeAdded literature references
47579view14:54, 29 March 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47578view14:34, 29 March 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47577view14:24, 29 March 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47576view14:23, 29 March 2012MdstobbeLayout
47575view14:14, 29 March 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47473view21:39, 20 March 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47472view21:29, 20 March 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47471view21:19, 20 March 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47470view21:09, 20 March 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47469view20:59, 20 March 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47452view22:45, 19 March 2012MdstobbeCorrected directions
47451view22:28, 19 March 2012MdstobbeAdded IDs
47407view17:08, 18 March 2012MdstobbePeriodical save, work in progress
47406view16:33, 18 March 2012MdstobbeAdded cosubstrates and removed reactions that are not part of the TCA cycle. Furthermore, enzymes were corrected where necessary.

External references

DataNodes

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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACO2GeneProduct50 (Entrez Gene)
Acetyl-CoAMetaboliteHMDB01206 (HMDB)
Citrate SynthaseGeneProduct1431 (Entrez Gene)
CitrateMetaboliteHMDB00094 (HMDB)
DLATGeneProduct1737 (Entrez Gene)
DLDGeneProduct1738 (Entrez Gene)
DLSTGeneProduct1743 (Entrez Gene)
Degradation of Fatty Acids Containing an Even Number of CarbonsPathwayWP143 (WikiPathways)
Degradation of Fatty Acids Containing an Odd Number of CarbonsPathwayWP143 (WikiPathways)
Electron Transport ChainPathwayWP111 (WikiPathways)
Fatty Acid SynthesisPathwayWP357 (WikiPathways)
Fumarate HydrataseGeneProduct2271 (Entrez Gene)
FumarateMetaboliteHMDB00134 (HMDB)
GluconeogenesisPathwayWP534 (WikiPathways)
GlycolysisPathwayWP534 (WikiPathways)
IDH2GeneProduct3418 (Entrez Gene)
IDH3AGeneProduct3419 (Entrez Gene)
IDH3BGeneProduct3420 (Entrez Gene)
IDH3GGeneProduct3421 (Entrez Gene)
IsocitrateMetaboliteHMDB00193 (HMDB)
MDH1GeneProduct4190 (Entrez Gene)
MDH2GeneProduct4191 (Entrez Gene)
MalateMetaboliteHMDB00156 (HMDB)
OGDHGeneProduct4967 (Entrez Gene)
OxaloacetateMetaboliteHMDB00223 (HMDB)
PDHA1GeneProduct5160 (Entrez Gene)
PDHA2GeneProduct5161 (Entrez Gene)
PDHBGeneProduct5162 (Entrez Gene)
PDHXGeneProduct8050 (Entrez Gene)
PDK1GeneProduct5163 (Entrez Gene)
PDK2GeneProduct5164 (Entrez Gene)
PDK3GeneProduct5165 (Entrez Gene)
PDK4GeneProduct5166 (Entrez Gene)
PDP2GeneProduct57546 (Entrez Gene)
PPM2CGeneProduct54704 (Entrez Gene)
Pyruvate CarboxylaseGeneProduct5091 (Entrez Gene)
PyruvateMetaboliteHMDB00243 (HMDB)
SDHAGeneProduct6389 (Entrez Gene)
SDHBGeneProduct6390 (Entrez Gene)
SDHCGeneProduct6391 (Entrez Gene)
SDHDGeneProduct6392 (Entrez Gene)
SUCLA2GeneProduct8803 (Entrez Gene)
SUCLG1GeneProduct8802 (Entrez Gene)
SUCLG2GeneProduct8801 (Entrez Gene)
SuccinateMetaboliteHMDB00254 (HMDB)
Succinyl-CoAMetaboliteHMDB01022 (HMDB)
α-KetoglutarateMetabolite328-50-7 (CAS)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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