Long-Day Flowering Time Pathway (Arabidopsis thaliana)

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5protein-protein interactionCIRCADIAN CLOCKVernalization PathwayAutonomous flowering time pathwayActivates/upregulatesPhotoperiodLong Dayalpha subunitparalogsCK2 Casein Kinase Complexbeta subunitparalogsCircadian clock entrainmentInhibits/down_regulates/repressesFlower Development[Pathway WP618]111PHYDELF4CRY2CK2B3COPHYACOP1LDCK2 alpha BPHYETOC-1CK2 alpha CpFCAPIF6CK2B1FKF1LHYGISOC1SPYGibberellic AcidCCA1CK2 alpha ACK2B2ELF3CHECK2 alpha CCRY1FLCPHYBFRIFTCK2B41141112111


Flowering time in a plant is associated often with the property of when the plant flowers. However, this property is dependent on several components of environment (light, photoperiod and temperature), gene regulation and several biological processes besides the genetic makeup of the plant. The time taken by the plant to flower also depends on the when the vegetative shoot apical meristem transitions into the reproductive shoot apical meristem. The correct timing and perception of the signal is essential to successful flower development in a timely manner. In Arabidopsis the day length (photoperiod) can control several plant processes including the flowering time. Arabidopsis is a facultative long-day plant since its flowering is promoted by the long days (~16 hours light; 8 hours dark), and delayed, in shortday conditions (8 hours light, 16 hours dark). As compared to rice which is a short day plant. Flowering in rice is induced by short day length photoperiod.


Flowering time
This connects to Flower Development Pathway [WP618]

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  1. Pruneda-Paz JL, Breton G, Para A, Kay SA; ''A functional genomics approach reveals CHE as a component of the Arabidopsis circadian clock.''; Science, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Daniel X, Sugano S, Tobin EM; ''CK2 phosphorylation of CCA1 is necessary for its circadian oscillator function in Arabidopsis.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Yu JW, Rubio V, Lee NY, Bai S, Lee SY, Kim SS, Liu L, Zhang Y, Irigoyen ML, Sullivan JA, Lee I, Xie Q, Paek NC, Deng XW; ''COP1 and ELF3 control circadian function and photoperiodic flowering by regulating GI stability.''; Mol Cell, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Salinas P, Fuentes D, Vidal E, Jordana X, Echeverria M, Holuigue L; ''An extensive survey of CK2 alpha and beta subunits in Arabidopsis: multiple isoforms exhibit differential subcellular localization.''; Plant Cell Physiol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Tsuchida-Mayama T, Sakai T, Hanada A, Uehara Y, Asami T, Yamaguchi S; ''Role of the phytochrome and cryptochrome signaling pathways in hypocotyl phototropism.''; Plant J, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Song X, Kristie DN, Reekie EG; ''Why does elevated CO2 affect time of flowering? An exploratory study using the photoperiodic flowering mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.''; New Phytol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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88694view16:01, 12 August 2016JmeliusOntology Term : 'regulatory pathway' added !
68455view19:39, 5 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
46623view10:03, 24 February 2012DrsdLimited improvment of the clock
40489view19:13, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
37737view21:37, 29 June 2010Pjaiswaladded pmid
34993view19:06, 9 February 2010KhanspersUpdated xrefs
34992view19:04, 9 February 2010KhanspersUpdated xrefs
34991view18:58, 9 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
34990view18:16, 9 February 2010KhanspersUpdated xrefs
34989view18:08, 9 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
34988view17:57, 9 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
34966view23:30, 8 February 2010Khanspersupdated xrefs
34965view23:21, 8 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
34964view23:11, 8 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
33390view14:45, 30 November 2009MaintBotRemoved group label
32174view21:45, 14 August 2009AlexanderPicoReverted to version '12:54, 30 March 2009' by AlexanderPico
32173view20:01, 14 August 2009PjaiswalReverted to version '14:07, 14 August 2009' by Pjaiswal
32172view19:59, 14 August 2009PjaiswalReverted to version '19:54, 30 March 2009' by Pjaiswal
32170view14:07, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
29075view19:54, 30 March 2009Pjaiswaladded PMID 19286557
29074view19:51, 30 March 2009PjaiswalLHY suppresses CHE as well
29073view19:48, 30 March 2009PjaiswalAdded CHE gene and its interaction with TOC1 and CCA1
29072view19:41, 30 March 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
29071view19:33, 30 March 2009Pjaiswaladded TOC1 direct repression by CCA1
28592view21:22, 16 February 2009Pjaiswalminor
28591view21:19, 16 February 2009Pjaiswaladded xref to Gibberellic acid
28590view21:17, 16 February 2009Pjaiswaladded more components
28589view21:07, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28588view20:57, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28587view20:47, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28586view20:27, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28585view20:11, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28584view20:01, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28583view18:41, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28582view18:31, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28581view18:21, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28580view18:07, 16 February 2009Pjaiswalmodified comments
28579view18:06, 16 February 2009PjaiswalModified description
28578view18:04, 16 February 2009Pjaiswaladded connection to WP618
28577view17:56, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28554view19:43, 11 February 2009AlexanderPicoaltered visual for entrainment
28553view19:36, 11 February 2009AlexanderPicovisual tweaks: alignment, sizing, label fonts
28395view11:48, 11 February 2009Thomasconnected some lines
28248view22:41, 10 February 2009Pjaiswalmodified comments and added category
28247view22:39, 10 February 2009PjaiswalModified categories
28246view22:38, 10 February 2009PjaiswalModified description
28245view22:28, 10 February 2009Pjaiswaladded comments, modified CK2 complex
28244view22:20, 10 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28243view22:08, 10 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28198view20:08, 5 February 2009AlexanderPicoModified categories

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
CCA1GeneProductAT2G46830-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis) CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 is a transcriptional repressor and works similar to LHY in a regulatory feedback loop.
CHEGeneProductAT5G08330-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis) CHE (CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION) is a Class I TCP (TB1, CYC, PCFs) family protein. It is a clock component redundant with LHY in repression of CCA1. Its expression is regulated by CCA, thus creating a CCA1/CHE feedback loop. CHE and TOC1 interact and CHE binds CCA1 promoter.
CK2 alpha AGeneProductAT5G67380 (TAIR)
CK2 alpha BGeneProductAT3G50000 (TAIR)
CK2 alpha CGeneProductAT2G23080 (TAIR)
CK2 alpha CpGeneProductAT2G23070 (TAIR) Found localized to plastid/chloroplast
CK2B1GeneProductAT5G47080 (TAIR)
CK2B2GeneProductAT4G17640 (TAIR)
CK2B3GeneProductAT3G60250 (TAIR)
CK2B4GeneProductAT2G44680 (TAIR)
COGeneProductAt5G15840 (TAIR)
COP1GeneProductAT2G32950 (TAIR)
CRY1GeneProductAT4G08920 (TAIR)
CRY2GeneProductAT1G04400 (TAIR)
ELF3GeneProductAT2G25930 (TAIR) EARLY FLOWERING 3 interacts with PHYB
ELF4GeneProductAT2G40080-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis) EARLY FLOWERING 4 controls circadian rhythms and flowering time
FCAGeneProductAT4G16280 (TAIR) It is an RNA-binding protein that promotes transition of vegetative meristem to reproductive mesitem and is involved in RNA-mediated chromatin silencing.
FKF1GeneProductAT1G68050 (TAIR) FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX 1 is clock-controlled and regulates transition to flowering.
FLCGeneProductAT5G10140 (TAIR) FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a transcription factor that functions as a repressor of floral transition and contributes to temperature compensation of the circadian clock. Its expression is downregulated during cold treatment.
FRIGeneProductAT4G00650 (TAIR) Loss of function of FRIGIDA (FRI) results in early flowering.
FTGeneProductAT1G65480 (TAIR)
GIGeneProductAT1G22770 (TAIR) promotes flowering by acting upstream of CO (CONSTANS), FT (FLOWERING TIME) and SOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1)
Gibberellic AcidMetabolite77-06-5 (CAS)
LDGeneProductAT4G02560 (TAIR) LUMINIDEPENDENS (LD) is a positive regulator of flowering in the autonomous pathway. Its functional disruption results in delayed flowering.
LHYGeneProductAT1G01060-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis) LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 1 is a transcription factor involved in circadian rythm along with MYB transcription factor.
PHYAGeneProductAT1G09570-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
PHYBGeneProductAT2G18790-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
PHYDGeneProductAT4G16250-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
PHYEGeneProductAT4G18130 (TAIR)
PIF6GeneProductAT3G62090 (TAIR) PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 6 is a Myc-related bHLH transcription factor and physically interacts with TOC1.
SOC1GeneProductAT2G45660 (TAIR)
SPYGeneProductAT3G11540 (TAIR) SPINDLY (SPY) encodes for the enzyme N-acetyl glucosamine transferase that may glycosylate molecules involved in GA signaling. SPY acts as both a repressor of GA responses and as a positive regulation of cytokinin signalling. [imported from TAIR http://arabidopsis.org/servlets/TairObject?id=36698&type=locus]
TOC-1GeneProductAT5G61380-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis) TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 is involved in generating circadian rythm and shortens the span of circumnutation rate. TOC1 interacts with ZTL.

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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