ACE Inhibitor Pathway (Homo sapiens)

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1, 2Cell MembraneAGTR2BradykininACEKNG1AGTRENACE InhibitorAGTR1ACEBDKRB2Angiotensin IIAldosteroneAngiotensin INOS3


The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is central to the control of blood pressure and the target of several types of anti-hypertensive drugs. This pathway depicts a simplified representation of the pharmacodynamics (PD) of RAAS-acting drugs including candidate genes for the pharmacogenomics (PGx) of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), renin inhibitor aliskiren and aldosterone receptor antagonists. Source: PharmGKB (


GenMAPP remarks 
Adapted from PharmGKB

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  1. Batenburg WW, Jan Danser AH; ''The (pro)renin receptor: a new addition to the renin-angiotensin system?''; Eur J Pharmacol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Weir MR; ''Effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibition on end-organ protection: can we do better?''; Clin Ther, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Bassett MH, White PC, Rainey WE; ''The regulation of aldosterone synthase expression.''; Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Hamming I, Cooper ME, Haagmans BL, Hooper NM, Korstanje R, Osterhaus AD, Timens W, Turner AJ, Navis G, van Goor H; ''The emerging role of ACE2 in physiology and disease.''; J Pathol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Schwartz GL, Turner ST; ''Pharmacogenetics of antihypertensive drug responses.''; Am J Pharmacogenomics, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. McDowell SE, Coleman JJ, Ferner RE; ''Systematic review and meta-analysis of ethnic differences in risks of adverse reactions to drugs used in cardiovascular medicine.''; BMJ, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Ferreira AJ, Raizada MK; ''Are we poised to target ACE2 for the next generation of antihypertensives?''; J Mol Med, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Huang Y, Wongamorntham S, Kasting J, McQuillan D, Owens RT, Yu L, Noble NA, Border W; ''Renin increases mesangial cell transforming growth factor-beta1 and matrix proteins through receptor-mediated, angiotensin II-independent mechanisms.''; Kidney Int, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP, Kakafika AI, Tziomalos K, Karagiannis A; ''Angiotensin II reactivation and aldosterone escape phenomena in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade: is oral renin inhibition the solution?''; Expert Opin Pharmacother, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Maron BA, Leopold JA; ''Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function.''; Curr Opin Investig Drugs, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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107642view18:06, 24 October 2019Khanspers
107377view22:24, 2 October 2019AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'hypertension' added !
106817view13:29, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
105866view23:28, 15 August 2019KhanspersModified description
105430view04:30, 8 August 2019KhanspersModified description
96328view09:32, 8 March 2018Mkutmonremove old WP category
96005view09:35, 15 February 2018DeSlRemoved licence number
96004view09:33, 15 February 2018DeSlChanged MIM conversion between gene and metabolite to arrow.
92084view18:10, 24 April 2017KhanspersReverted to version '18:16, 17 February 2016' by Khanspers
92083view18:10, 24 April 2017Khansperstest
92082view18:09, 24 April 2017Khanspersmoved node
84372view18:16, 17 February 2016AlexanderPicoReverted to version '04:16, 15 October 2014' by AlexanderPico
84290view21:56, 3 February 2016AlexanderPicoQuick edit to datanode annotation or property
77712view11:16, 15 October 2014EgonwAdded KEGG IDs for ang (1-5) and and (1-7).
77711view11:04, 15 October 2014EgonwAdded a ChemSpider ID for "Ang 1-7".
77710view10:47, 15 October 2014EgonwRemoved a spuruous char from the label, improving the vertical centering.
70881view22:01, 12 September 2013MaintBotReverted to version '13:01, 5 September 2013' by MaintBot
70859view12:13, 12 September 2013NunoModified description
70755view13:01, 5 September 2013EgonwAdded a ChEBI id for 'ACE inhibitor'.
67020view09:55, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'ACE inhibitor drug pathway' added !
63137view19:14, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating GPML version
57086view20:47, 20 January 2013EgonwAdded missing PubChem-compound data source.
48249view06:21, 17 May 2012MaintBotUpdating PubChem xrefs
44938view12:24, 6 October 2011MartijnVanIerselOntology Term : 'angiotensin signaling pathway' added !
41083view23:20, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
39013view19:32, 27 September 2010AlexanderPico
39012view19:31, 27 September 2010AlexanderPicoModified description
39011view19:30, 27 September 2010AlexanderPicoadded detail and clarified interactions
38918view21:05, 24 September 2010Khanspers
38365view23:44, 2 September 2010KhanspersNew version uploaded
34805view23:49, 20 January 2010KhanspersModified description
34804view23:49, 20 January 2010KhanspersDeleted reference
34803view23:43, 20 January 2010KhanspersModified description
34802view23:41, 20 January 2010KhanspersDeleted reference
34801view23:30, 20 January 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
34800view23:18, 20 January 2010KhanspersAdded citation
34799view23:18, 20 January 2010KhanspersChanged comments
34798view23:16, 20 January 2010KhanspersModified description
32148view14:00, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
30178view20:31, 7 July 2009KhanspersAdded xref for angiotensinII
22578view13:30, 14 November 2008Thomasremoved redundant organism name after title
21846view11:32, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:ACE-Inhibitor pathway PharmGKB]] moved to [[Pathway:WP554]]: Moved to stable identifier
14510view01:16, 23 May 2008AlexanderPicoConnected, grouped and fixed metabolites
13026view11:07, 17 May 2008MaintBotSticky edges patch by Sjoerd
11883view18:19, 8 May 2008KhanspersChanged contact info
11445view21:52, 29 March 2008JinwookPeriodical save, work in progress
10186view12:20, 15 January 2008MaintBotadded literature
7872view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Human:ACE-Inhibitor pathway PharmGKB]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:ACE-Inhibitor pathway PharmGKB]]: Renaming species
7561view16:00, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7449view12:42, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACE InhibitorMetabolite
ACEGeneProduct1636 (Entrez Gene)
AGTGeneProduct183 (Entrez Gene)
AGTR1GeneProduct185 (Entrez Gene)
AGTR2GeneProduct186 (Entrez Gene)
AldosteroneMetaboliteC01780 (Kegg Compound)
Angiotensin IMetabolite3081372 (PubChem)
Angiotensin IIMetaboliteHMDB01035 (HMDB)
BDKRB2GeneProduct624 (Entrez Gene)
BradykininMetaboliteHMDB04246 (HMDB)
KNG1GeneProduct3827 (Entrez Gene)
NOS3GeneProduct4846 (Entrez Gene)
RENGeneProduct5972 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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