Calcium regulation in cardiac cells (Homo sapiens)

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Calcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once it enters the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory affects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction after influx resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors. Movement of calcium ions from the extracellular compartment to the intracellular compartment alters membrane depolarisation. This is seen in the heart, during the plateau phase of ventricular contraction. In this example, calcium acts to maintain depolarisation of the heart. Source: Wikipedia

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Ontology Terms



  1. Marks AR; ''Calcium and the heart: a question of life and death.''; J Clin Invest, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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116854view10:51, 14 May 2021EweitzModified title
111318view17:15, 28 July 2020Khanspersupdated interactions
108097view15:35, 28 November 2019EgonwReplaced a secondary ChEBI identifiers with a primary identifier.
108058view10:23, 27 November 2019Fehrhartadded ORAI1 and STIM2
107185view14:27, 17 September 2019MaintBotChEBI identifier normalization
106815view13:29, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
106346view21:34, 21 August 2019KhanspersModified description
105547view06:09, 9 August 2019KhanspersModified description
102526view00:58, 4 January 2019Khanspersfixed unconnected interactions
95108view14:18, 16 November 2017DeSlRemoved nested groups.
94305view11:30, 1 September 2017Marvin M2Connected unconnected line
94223view22:38, 25 August 2017DeSlAnnotated IP4
90194view20:28, 21 October 2016Khanspersfixed unconnected
80211view21:02, 22 May 2015KhanspersReverted to version '14:51, 7 January 2015' by Khanspers
80170view22:38, 14 May 2015KhanspersAdded mir219 targeting and fixed unconnected lines
78588view14:51, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
75219view21:27, 9 May 2014KhanspersAdded xrefs for metabolites and gene products, fixed interactions, added
72097view21:38, 24 October 2013AlexanderPicoremoved GJA6; no human homolog
71389view18:42, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
70564view22:43, 12 August 2013MetalmephistoSodium and Potassium links to data
70561view20:52, 12 August 2013MetalmephistoAdded Na+ reference
70560view20:49, 12 August 2013MetalmephistoLinked Ca2+ to actual ID
70558view20:44, 12 August 2013MetalmephistoPeriodical save, work in progress
67774view13:58, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'calcium/calcium-mediated signaling pathway' added !
63144view19:22, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating gpml version
44983view14:30, 6 October 2011MartijnVanIerselOntology Term : 'cardiovascular system disease' added !
44982view14:28, 6 October 2011MartijnVanIerselOntology Term : 'cardiac muscle cell' added !
41204view23:44, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
39802view22:00, 20 January 2011AlexanderPicoset group type
38956view00:33, 25 September 2010Khanspers
38804view07:32, 24 September 2010JildauSR
38803view07:29, 24 September 2010Jildaucell membrane
37305view16:49, 26 May 2010AmcuserPeriodical save, work in progress
35441view11:38, 12 February 2010Thomasadded literature
35439view11:36, 12 February 2010ThomasModified description
34462view18:27, 10 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
32461view17:26, 15 August 2009MaintBotFixed text labels
32144view13:59, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
21808view11:32, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Calcium regulation in cardiac cells]] moved to [[Pathway:WP536]]: Moved to stable identifier
15237view10:39, 26 May 2008Thomaslinked lines
15235view10:31, 26 May 2008ThomasPeriodical save, work in progress
14301view11:44, 22 May 2008SusanAdded connections
14147view15:03, 21 May 2008SusanGroupin of genes
13046view11:11, 17 May 2008MaintBotautomated metabolite conversion
12997view11:00, 17 May 2008MaintBotSticky edges patch by Sjoerd
7932view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Human:Calcium regulation in cardiac cells]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Calcium regulation in cardiac cells]]: Renaming species
7591view16:02, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7458view12:42, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
19391view22:17, 22 May 2007N.Cottegpml file for [[Human:Calcium_regulation_in_cardiac_cells]]
19388view22:17, 22 May 2007J.Fonggpml file for [[Human:Calcium_regulation_in_cardiac_cells]]

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADCY1GeneProduct107 (Entrez Gene) CYA1 HUMAN
ADCY2GeneProduct108 (Entrez Gene) There is no SwissProt entry for a full-length sequence in mouse. This EST is from the Affymetrix Murine6500 chip.
ADCY3GeneProduct109 (Entrez Gene)
ADCY4GeneProduct196883 (Entrez Gene) There is no SwissProt entry for a full-length sequence in mouse. This EST is from the Affymetrix Murine6500 chip.
ADCY5GeneProduct111 (Entrez Gene) There is no SwissProt entry for a full-length sequence in mouse. This EST is from the Affymetrix Murine6500 chip.
ADCY6GeneProduct112 (Entrez Gene)
ADCY7GeneProduct113 (Entrez Gene)
ADCY8GeneProduct114 (Entrez Gene)
ADCY9GeneProduct115 (Entrez Gene)
ADPMetabolite58-64-0 (CAS)
ADRA1AGeneProduct148 (Entrez Gene)
ADRA1BGeneProduct147 (Entrez Gene)
ADRA1DGeneProduct146 (Entrez Gene)
ADRB1GeneProduct153 (Entrez Gene)
ADRB2GeneProduct154 (Entrez Gene)
ADRB3GeneProduct155 (Entrez Gene)
ANXA6GeneProduct309 (Entrez Gene)
ARRB1GeneProduct408 (Entrez Gene)
ARRB2GeneProduct409 (Entrez Gene)
ATPMetabolite1927-31-7 (CAS)
ATP1A4GeneProduct480 (Entrez Gene)
ATP1B1GeneProduct481 (Entrez Gene)
ATP1B2GeneProduct482 (Entrez Gene)
ATP1B3GeneProduct483 (Entrez Gene)
ATP2A2GeneProduct488 (Entrez Gene)
ATP2A3GeneProduct489 (Entrez Gene)
ATP2B1GeneProduct490 (Entrez Gene)
ATP2B2GeneProduct491 (Entrez Gene)
ATP2B3GeneProduct492 (Entrez Gene)
AcetylcholineMetabolite51-84-3 (CAS)
CACNA1AGeneProduct773 (Entrez Gene)
CACNA1BGeneProduct774 (Entrez Gene)
CACNA1CGeneProduct775 (Entrez Gene)
CACNA1DGeneProduct776 (Entrez Gene)
CACNA1EGeneProduct777 (Entrez Gene)
CACNA1SGeneProduct779 (Entrez Gene)
CACNB1GeneProduct782 (Entrez Gene)
CACNB3GeneProduct784 (Entrez Gene)
CALM1GeneProduct801 (Entrez Gene)
CALM2GeneProduct805 (Entrez Gene)
CALM3GeneProduct808 (Entrez Gene)
CALRGeneProduct811 (Entrez Gene)
CAMK1GeneProduct8536 (Entrez Gene)
CAMK2AGeneProduct815 (Entrez Gene)
CAMK2BGeneProduct816 (Entrez Gene)
CAMK2DGeneProduct817 (Entrez Gene)
CAMK2GGeneProduct818 (Entrez Gene)
CAMK4GeneProduct814 (Entrez Gene)
CASQ1GeneProduct844 (Entrez Gene)
CASQ2GeneProduct845 (Entrez Gene)
CHRM1GeneProduct1128 (Entrez Gene)
CHRM2GeneProduct1129 (Entrez Gene)
CHRM3GeneProduct1131 (Entrez Gene)
CHRM4GeneProduct1132 (Entrez Gene)
CHRM5GeneProduct1133 (Entrez Gene)
CX36GeneProduct57369 (Entrez Gene)
FKBP1AGeneProduct2280 (Entrez Gene)
FXYD2GeneProduct486 (Entrez Gene)
GJA10GeneProduct81025 (Entrez Gene)
GJA12GeneProduct57165 (Entrez Gene)
GJA1GeneProduct2697 (Entrez Gene)
GJA3GeneProduct2700 (Entrez Gene)
GJA4GeneProduct2701 (Entrez Gene)
GJA5GeneProduct2702 (Entrez Gene)
GJA7GeneProduct10052 (Entrez Gene)
GJA8GeneProduct2703 (Entrez Gene)
GJB1GeneProduct2705 (Entrez Gene)
GJB2GeneProduct2706 (Entrez Gene)
GJB3GeneProduct2707 (Entrez Gene)
GJB4GeneProduct127534 (Entrez Gene)
GJB5GeneProduct2709 (Entrez Gene)
GJB6GeneProduct10804 (Entrez Gene)
GNA11GeneProduct2767 (Entrez Gene)
GNAI1GeneProduct2770 (Entrez Gene)
GNAI2GeneProduct2771 (Entrez Gene)
GNAI3GeneProduct2773 (Entrez Gene)
GNAO1GeneProduct2775 (Entrez Gene)
GNAQGeneProduct2776 (Entrez Gene)
GNASGeneProduct2778 (Entrez Gene)
GNAZGeneProduct2781 (Entrez Gene)
GNB1GeneProduct2782 (Entrez Gene)
GNB2GeneProduct2783 (Entrez Gene)
GNB3GeneProduct2784 (Entrez Gene)
GNB4GeneProduct59345 (Entrez Gene)
GNB5GeneProduct10681 (Entrez Gene)
GNG11GeneProduct2791 (Entrez Gene)
GNG12GeneProduct55970 (Entrez Gene)
GNG13GeneProduct51764 (Entrez Gene)
GNG2GeneProduct54331 (Entrez Gene)
GNG3GeneProduct2785 (Entrez Gene)
GNG4GeneProduct2786 (Entrez Gene)
GNG5GeneProduct2787 (Entrez Gene)
GNG7GeneProduct2788 (Entrez Gene)
GNG8GeneProduct94235 (Entrez Gene)
GNGT1GeneProduct2792 (Entrez Gene)
GRK4GeneProduct2868 (Entrez Gene)
GRK5GeneProduct2869 (Entrez Gene)
GRK6GeneProduct2870 (Entrez Gene)
ITPR1GeneProduct3708 (Entrez Gene)
ITPR2GeneProduct3709 (Entrez Gene)
ITPR3GeneProduct3710 (Entrez Gene)
KCNB1GeneProduct3745 (Entrez Gene)
KCNJ3GeneProduct3760 (Entrez Gene)
KCNJ5GeneProduct3762 (Entrez Gene)
PKIAGeneProduct5569 (Entrez Gene)
PKIBGeneProduct5570 (Entrez Gene)
PKIGGeneProduct11142 (Entrez Gene)
PLCB3GeneProduct5331 (Entrez Gene)
PLNGeneProduct5350 (Entrez Gene)
PRKACAGeneProduct5566 (Entrez Gene)
PRKACBGeneProduct5567 (Entrez Gene)
PRKAR1AGeneProduct5573 (Entrez Gene) KAP0 HUMAN
PRKAR1BGeneProduct5575 (Entrez Gene)
PRKAR2AGeneProduct5576 (Entrez Gene)
PRKAR2BGeneProduct5577 (Entrez Gene)
PRKCAGeneProduct5578 (Entrez Gene)
PRKCB1GeneProduct5579 (Entrez Gene)
PRKCDGeneProduct5580 (Entrez Gene)
PRKCEGeneProduct5581 (Entrez Gene) This EST is listed on the Affymetrix Murine6500 chip. The SwissProt entry name is KPCE MOUSE.
PRKCGGeneProduct5582 (Entrez Gene)
PRKCHGeneProduct5583 (Entrez Gene)
PRKCQGeneProduct5588 (Entrez Gene)
PRKCZGeneProduct5590 (Entrez Gene)
PRKD1GeneProduct5587 (Entrez Gene) KPCM HUMAN
RGS10GeneProduct6001 (Entrez Gene)
RGS11GeneProduct8786 (Entrez Gene)
RGS14GeneProduct10636 (Entrez Gene)
RGS1GeneProduct5996 (Entrez Gene)
RGS16GeneProduct6004 (Entrez Gene)
RGS17GeneProduct26575 (Entrez Gene)
RGS18GeneProduct64407 (Entrez Gene)
RGS19GeneProduct10287 (Entrez Gene)
RGS20GeneProduct8601 (Entrez Gene)
RGS2GeneProduct5997 (Entrez Gene)
RGS3GeneProduct5998 (Entrez Gene)
RGS4GeneProduct5999 (Entrez Gene)
RGS5GeneProduct8490 (Entrez Gene)
RGS6GeneProduct9628 (Entrez Gene)
RGS7GeneProduct6000 (Entrez Gene)
RGS9GeneProduct8787 (Entrez Gene)
RYR1GeneProduct6261 (Entrez Gene)
RYR2GeneProduct6262 (Entrez Gene)
RYR3GeneProduct6263 (Entrez Gene)
SFNGeneProduct2810 (Entrez Gene)
SLC8A1GeneProduct6546 (Entrez Gene)
SLC8A3GeneProduct6547 (Entrez Gene)
YWHABGeneProduct7529 (Entrez Gene)
YWHAEGeneProduct7531 (Entrez Gene)
YWHAGGeneProduct7532 (Entrez Gene)
YWHAHGeneProduct7533 (Entrez Gene)
YWHAQGeneProduct10971 (Entrez Gene)
YWHAZGeneProduct7534 (Entrez Gene) PMID: 9861170 PMID: 1317796

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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