Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

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1-4GlycolysisTCA CycleGluconeogenesisMitochondrionTransportTDH1Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphatePyruvateCDC19FBP1PDB1PYK2TDH2GPM1Dihydroxyacetone phosphateFructose-6-phosphateGlucoseHXK13-PhosphoglycerateOxaloacetateACS1 (mt)PyruvateENO1FBA1MalateENO2PDA1PGI1EthanolADH1PGK1MAE1AcetaldehydeGlucose-6-phosphateACS2AcetatePhosphoenolpyruvateTDH3EthanolALD4 (mt)PDX1AcetaldehydePCK1ADH51,3-BisphosphoglycerateHXK2Acetyl-CoAFructose-1,6-bisphosphatePYC1PFK2LAT1PDC5MDH1 (mt)ADH4 (mt)MalateADH3 (mt)TPI1GLK1PYC2Acetate2-PhosphoglycerateLPD1PFK1ADH2PDC6ALD6PDC1MDH3Acetyl-CoAOxaloacetateMDH2


Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). The process is essentially the reversal of the glycolysis pathway. The pathway is particularly important in animals, as the production of glucose from other metabolites is necessary for use as a fuel source by the brain, testes, erythrocytes and kidney medulla, all of which can use only glucose as the energy source. Gluconeogenesis in animals is perfomed mostly in the liver. The pathway is carried by cytoplasmic enzymes to the level of glucose-6-phosphate. Since free glucose tends to freely diffuse out of the cell, actual glucose formation is carried out in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum by gluocose-6-phosphatase . Glucose is then shuttled into the cytosol by glucose transporters. The main souces of carbon for gluconeogenesis in animals is lactate, formed in skeletal muscle cells during anaerobic glycolysis and carried to the liver in the blood stream. The conversion of glucose into lactate by glycolysis and back to glucose by gluconeogenesis is referred to as the Cori Cycle. Pathway summary from MetaCyc


GenMAPP notes 

Based on Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Pathways at SGD and on Kruckeberg, AL and Dickinson, JR (2004) Carbon Metabolism in The Metabolism and Molecular Physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Dickinson, JR and Schweizer, M, eds, CRC Press.

GenMAPP remarks 

Right click here for references

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



  1. Katz J, Tayek JA; ''Recycling of glucose and determination of the Cori Cycle and gluconeogenesis.''; Am J Physiol, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Waterhouse C, Keilson J; ''Cori cycle activity in man.''; J Clin Invest, 1969 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Palmieri L, Vozza A, Agrimi G, De Marco V, Runswick MJ, Palmieri F, Walker JE; ''Identification of the yeast mitochondrial transporter for oxaloacetate and sulfate.''; J Biol Chem, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Eisenstein AB; ''Current concepts of gluconeogenesis.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1967 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Lardy HA; ''Gluconeogenesis: pathways and hormonal regulation.''; Harvey Lect, 1966 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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58987view19:34, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
57621view19:46, 30 January 2013AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'gluconeogenesis pathway' added !
57620view19:45, 30 January 2013AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway' added !
57619view19:45, 30 January 2013AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'glycolysis pathway' added !
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External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
1,3-BisphosphoglycerateMetaboliteHMDB01270 (HMDB)
2-PhosphoglycerateMetaboliteHMDB00362 (HMDB)
3-PhosphoglycerateMetaboliteHMDB00807 (HMDB)
ACS1 (mt)GeneProductYAL054C (Ensembl Yeast)
ACS2GeneProductYLR153C (Ensembl Yeast)
ADH1GeneProductYOL086C (Ensembl Yeast)
ADH2GeneProductYMR303C (Ensembl Yeast)
ADH3 (mt)GeneProductYMR083W (Ensembl Yeast)
ADH4 (mt)GeneProductYGL256W (Ensembl Yeast)
ADH5GeneProductYBR145W (Ensembl Yeast)
ALD4 (mt)GeneProductYOR374W (Ensembl Yeast)
ALD6GeneProductYPL061W (Ensembl Yeast)
AcetaldehydeMetabolite75-07-0 (CAS)
AcetateMetabolite64-19-7 (CAS)
Acetyl-CoAMetabolite72-89-9 (CAS)
CDC19GeneProductYAL038W (Ensembl Yeast)
Dihydroxyacetone phosphateMetaboliteHMDB01473 (HMDB)
ENO1GeneProductYGR254W (Ensembl Yeast)
ENO2GeneProductYHR174W (Ensembl Yeast)
EthanolMetabolite64-17-5 (CAS)
FBA1GeneProductYKL060C (Ensembl Yeast)
FBP1GeneProductYLR377C (Ensembl Yeast)
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphateMetaboliteHMDB01058 (HMDB)
Fructose-6-phosphateMetabolite643-13-0 (CAS)
GLK1GeneProductGLK1 (SGD)
GPM1GeneProductYKL152C (Ensembl Yeast)
Glucose-6-phosphateMetabolite59-56-3 (CAS)
GlucoseMetabolite50-99-7 (CAS)
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB01112 (HMDB)
HXK1GeneProductYFR053C (Ensembl Yeast)
HXK2GeneProductYGL253W (Ensembl Yeast)
LAT1GeneProductYNL071W (Ensembl Yeast)
LPD1GeneProductYFL018C (Ensembl Yeast)
MAE1GeneProductYKL029C (Ensembl Yeast)
MDH1 (mt)GeneProductYKL085W (Ensembl Yeast)
MDH2GeneProductYOL126C (Ensembl Yeast)
MDH3GeneProductYDL078C (Ensembl Yeast)
MalateMetabolite617-48-1 (CAS)
OxaloacetateMetaboliteHMDB00223 (HMDB)
PCK1GeneProductPCK1 (SGD)
PDA1GeneProductYER178W (Ensembl Yeast)
PDB1GeneProductYBR221C (Ensembl Yeast)
PDC1GeneProductYLR044C (Ensembl Yeast)
PDC5GeneProductYLR134W (Ensembl Yeast)
PDC6GeneProductYGR087C (Ensembl Yeast)
PDX1GeneProductYGR193C (Ensembl Yeast)
PFK1GeneProductYGR240C (Ensembl Yeast)
PFK2GeneProductYMR205C (Ensembl Yeast)
PGI1GeneProductYBR196C (Ensembl Yeast)
PGK1GeneProductYCR012W (Ensembl Yeast)
PYC1GeneProductYGL062W (Ensembl Yeast)
PYC2GeneProductYBR218C (Ensembl Yeast)
PYK2GeneProductYOR347C (Ensembl Yeast)
PhosphoenolpyruvateMetabolite138-08-9 (CAS)
PyruvateMetaboliteHMDB00243 (HMDB)
TDH1GeneProductYOR176W (Ensembl Yeast)
TDH2GeneProductYJR009C (Ensembl Yeast)
TDH3GeneProductYGR192C (Ensembl Yeast)
TPI1GeneProductYDR050C (Ensembl Yeast)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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