SARS-CoV-2 and Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor: Molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target (Homo sapiens)

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322KE4 (KE:1748) - Increase, the risk of acute respiratory failureAO (KE:1751) - Increased mortalityMIEKE1 (KE:1738) - Enhanced viral entry and gene expressionKE3 (KE:1750) - Increase inflammatory immune responsesEvents related to the Adverse Outcome Pathway forAcute respiratory distress associated mortality (AOP:320)MIE (KE:1739) - Binding of S protein to ACE receptorKE2 (KE:1496) - Increased, secretion of proinflammatory and profibrotic mediatorsLegend15 genes included in the pathway:genes with direct evidence of associationto COVID-19 in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database(, 2Toll-likereceptor signalingCSF3Cytokines andinflammatoryresponseIL10ACE2IL6CCL2TNFTMPRSS2positive regulation ofleukocyte activationSARS-CoV-2 and Angiotensin-convertingenzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor:Molecular mechanisms andpotential therapeutic target(Homo sapiens)SARS-CoV-2 andCOVID-19 PathwayIL1BIL8CCL3LTF danger signalresponse pathwayIL7Lung fibrosisAGTIL2IL2RACXCL102KE2KE1KE3


Experimental pathway to investigate overlap of Covid-19 downstream effects and adverse outcome pathways related to lung injury.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Zhang H, Penninger JM, Li Y, Zhong N, Slutsky AS; ''Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target.''; Intensive Care Med, 2020 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, Schiergens TS, Herrler G, Wu NH, Nitsche A, Müller MA, Drosten C, Pöhlmann S; ''SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor.''; Cell, 2020 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Muthiah Vaduganathan, M.D., M.P.H., Orly Vardeny, Pharm.D., Thomas Michel, M.D., Ph.D., John J.V. McMurray, M.D., Marc A. Pfeffer, M.D., Ph.D., and Scott D. Solomon, M.D.; ''Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with Covid-19''; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsr2005760, 2020 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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110813view22:38, 9 June 2020Mkutmonfixed publication references
110812view22:32, 9 June 2020Mkutmonfixed unconnected line
110575view05:21, 19 May 2020EgonwAdded missing @Type annotation
110550view10:14, 18 May 2020FehrhartModified title
110549view10:13, 18 May 2020FehrhartOntology Term : 'severe acute respiratory syndrome' added !
110548view10:13, 18 May 2020FehrhartOntology Term : 'angiotensin signaling pathway' added !
110547view10:12, 18 May 2020Fehrhartchanged interactions to graphical lines, added IDs for angiotensins
110047view08:24, 15 April 2020PennyReverted to version '16:56, 6 April 2020' by Penny
110046view08:02, 15 April 2020PennyUpdated connection between ACE2 and AGT
109915view16:56, 6 April 2020KhanspersOntology Term : 'viral infectious disease' added !
109885view16:50, 3 April 2020Rex D A BInteractions
109883view14:48, 3 April 2020Rex D A BModified description
109882view14:46, 3 April 2020Rex D A BModified description
109881view14:45, 3 April 2020Rex D A BNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACE2GeneProduct59272 (Entrez Gene)
AGTGeneProduct183 (Entrez Gene)
CCL2GeneProduct6347 (Entrez Gene)
CCL3GeneProduct6348 (Entrez Gene)
CSF3GeneProduct1440 (Entrez Gene)
CXCL10GeneProduct3627 (Entrez Gene)
Cytokines and


PathwayWP530 (WikiPathways)
IL10GeneProduct3586 (Entrez Gene)
IL1BGeneProduct3553 (Entrez Gene)
IL2GeneProduct3558 (Entrez Gene)
IL2RAGeneProduct3559 (Entrez Gene)
IL6GeneProduct3569 (Entrez Gene)
IL7GeneProduct3574 (Entrez Gene)
IL8GeneProduct3576 (Entrez Gene)
LTF danger signal response pathwayPathwayWP4478 (WikiPathways)
Lung fibrosisPathwayWP3624 (WikiPathways)
SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 PathwayPathwayWP4846 (WikiPathways)
SARS-CoV-2 and Angiotensin-converting

enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor: Molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target

(Homo sapiens)
PathwayWP4883 (WikiPathways)
TMPRSS2GeneProduct7113 (Entrez Gene)
TNFGeneProduct7124 (Entrez Gene)
Toll-like receptor signalingPathwayWP75 (WikiPathways)
positive regulation of leukocyte activationGO:0002696 (Other)

Annotated Interactions

SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACE2AGTmim-modification882484 (BioGrid) Proteolytic processing
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