SARS-CoV-2 and Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor: Molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target (Homo sapiens)

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1, 3Anti-atrophyAngiotensin 1-93Angiotensin-2ACEAT1RMAS1RENAGTAngiotensin-1Angiotensin 1-7333333Anti-fibrosis3Anti-InflammationAnti-oxidantVasodilationTissue productionPro-atrophyPro-fibrosisPro-InflammationPro-oxidantVasoconstrictionTissue InjurySARS-CoV-2TMPRSS22, 3ACE2 surface receptorblockerSoluble ACE2 Spike vaccineTMPRSS2 inhibitorSARS-CoV-2 and Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor : Molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic targetReceptorLEGENDSARS-CoV-2 spike proteinViral membraneInhibitionDownregulationHost proteases for S proteinprimingACE22, 3Entry for viral replicationAccumulation of AngiotensinARBs surface receptorblockerInhibitorsSARS-CoV-2SARS-CoV-2S1S2Activation of angiotensin pathwayConverting enzymeSARS-CoV-2Soluble ACE22, 3


initial entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into cells, The large viral Spike (S) protein needs to be primed by host proteases. For SARS-CoV-2 that is the serine protease TMPRSS2. after binding to its functional receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). After endocytosis of the viral complex, surface ACE2 is further down-regulated, resulting in unopposed angiotensin II accumulation. Local activation of the activation of angiotensin pathway system may mediate lung injury responses to viral insults. ACE denotes angiotensin-converting enzyme, and ARB angiotensin-receptor blocker.


Literature curation of biological processes involved in the COVID-19 disease after SARS-Cov-2 infection and molecular mechanism and potential therapeutic target

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  1. Zhang H, Penninger JM, Li Y, Zhong N, Slutsky AS; ''Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target.''; Intensive Care Med, 2020 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, Schiergens TS, Herrler G, Wu NH, Nitsche A, Müller MA, Drosten C, Pöhlmann S; ''SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor.''; Cell, 2020 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Muthiah Vaduganathan, M.D., M.P.H., Orly Vardeny, Pharm.D., Thomas Michel, M.D., Ph.D., John J.V. McMurray, M.D., Marc A. Pfeffer, M.D., Ph.D., and Scott D. Solomon, M.D.; ''Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with Covid-19''; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsr2005760, 2020 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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110813view22:38, 9 June 2020Mkutmonfixed publication references
110812view22:32, 9 June 2020Mkutmonfixed unconnected line
110575view05:21, 19 May 2020EgonwAdded missing @Type annotation
110550view10:14, 18 May 2020FehrhartModified title
110549view10:13, 18 May 2020FehrhartOntology Term : 'severe acute respiratory syndrome' added !
110548view10:13, 18 May 2020FehrhartOntology Term : 'angiotensin signaling pathway' added !
110547view10:12, 18 May 2020Fehrhartchanged interactions to graphical lines, added IDs for angiotensins
110047view08:24, 15 April 2020PennyReverted to version '16:56, 6 April 2020' by Penny
110046view08:02, 15 April 2020PennyUpdated connection between ACE2 and AGT
109915view16:56, 6 April 2020KhanspersOntology Term : 'viral infectious disease' added !
109885view16:50, 3 April 2020Rex D A BInteractions
109883view14:48, 3 April 2020Rex D A BModified description
109882view14:46, 3 April 2020Rex D A BModified description
109881view14:45, 3 April 2020Rex D A BNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACEProtein1636 (Entrez Gene)
ACE2GeneProduct59272 (Entrez Gene)
AGTGeneProduct183 (Entrez Gene)
AT1RGeneProduct185 (Entrez Gene)
MAS1GeneProduct4142 (Entrez Gene)
RENGeneProduct5972 (Entrez Gene)
Soluble ACE2GeneProduct59272 (Entrez Gene)
TMPRSS2GeneProductENSG00000184012 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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