Downregulation of ACE2 by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Homo sapiens)

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1Lung injuryACEACE2AT1RAngiotensin IIAT2RSARS-CoV-2 spike


Schematic diagram of the renin-angiotensin system in acute lung failure and proposed SARS-CoV action. The renin-angiotensin system has a crucial role in severe acute lung injury and the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 has a protective role in acute lung failure. Because ACE2 is a crucial SARS-CoV receptor, SARS-CoV Spike protein binding to ACE2 downmodulates ACE2 expression, and loss of ACE2 expression results in severe acute respiratory failure. The AT1R is the crucial receptor that mediates AngII-induced vascular permeability and severe acute lung injury. SARS-CoV Spike–mediated lung failure can be rescued by inhibition of AT1R. This research was done in in vivo mice cells.

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  1. Kuba K, Imai Y, Rao S, Gao H, Guo F, Guan B, Huan Y, Yang P, Zhang Y, Deng W, Bao L, Zhang B, Liu G, Wang Z, Chappell M, Liu Y, Zheng D, Leibbrandt A, Wada T, Slutsky AS, Liu D, Qin C, Jiang C, Penninger JM; ''A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus-induced lung injury.''; Nat Med, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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120793view20:55, 8 January 2022AlexanderPicoReverted to version '11:32, 22 December 2021' by AlexanderPico
120657view18:35, 22 December 2021EweitzModified description
120656view18:34, 22 December 2021EweitzModified description
120655view18:32, 22 December 2021EweitzOntology Term : 'COVID-19' added !
120654view18:31, 22 December 2021EweitzUse standard height, font size
120653view18:22, 22 December 2021EweitzModified title
120652view18:21, 22 December 2021EweitzHorizontally align
120651view18:20, 22 December 2021EweitzChange "SARS-CoV" to "SAR-CoV-2" per Uniprot
120649view16:34, 22 December 2021EweitzRefine case
120648view16:33, 22 December 2021EweitzTighten graphics
120247view11:49, 20 November 2021EgonwMade the pathway clickable
120030view13:40, 16 October 2021EgonwLink to the lung injury AOP
116362view12:35, 4 May 2021EweitzModified title
114111view08:05, 23 December 2020EgonwConverted a Label into a pathway DataNode
113785view08:40, 21 November 2020EgonwUndo revision 113774 by [[Special:Contributions/NhungP|NhungP]] ([[User talk:NhungP|Talk]])
113774view11:12, 20 November 2020NhungPChange AngII identifier and source databases of nodes
111615view20:41, 29 August 2020EgonwModified title
110803view09:33, 8 June 2020FehrhartUpdated protein S ID
110802view09:32, 8 June 2020FehrhartUpdated protein S ID
110245view17:54, 29 April 2020EgonwThe neutral form
110244view17:50, 29 April 2020EgonwNot a mim-conversion
110243view17:49, 29 April 2020EgonwNot a mim-conversion
109976view18:19, 8 April 2020AlexanderPicoupdated sars nodes per #covidpathways guidelines
109852view11:43, 2 April 2020Fehrhartchanged virus protein visualization
109440view13:54, 17 March 2020FehrhartGraphical adjustments
109439view13:38, 17 March 2020FehrhartAdded literature reference
109161view13:43, 21 February 2020AmberOntology Term : 'CL:0001034' removed !
109160view13:43, 21 February 2020AmberModified description
109159view13:41, 21 February 2020AmberModified title
108981view20:15, 12 February 2020AmberModified title
108980view20:12, 12 February 2020AmberOntology Term : 'cell in vitro' added !
108979view20:11, 12 February 2020AmberOntology Term : 'viral infectious disease' added !
108978view20:10, 12 February 2020AmberOntology Term : 'disease pathway' added !
108977view20:07, 12 February 2020AmberModified description
108976view19:59, 12 February 2020AmberNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACE2ProteinQ9BYF1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ACEProteinA0A0A0MSN4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
AT1RProteinP30556 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
AT2RProteinP50052 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Angiotensin IIMetaboliteCHEBI:2719 (ChEBI)
Lung injuryPathwayWP5035 (WikiPathways)
SARS-CoV-2 spikeProteinP0DTC2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)

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